GENERAL PROBLEMS OF TRANSFER THEORY
MULTICOMPONENT SEPARATION POTENTIAL. GENERALIZATION OF THE DIRAC THEORY
V. A. Palkin, V. M. Gadel′shin, O. E. Aleksandrov, and V. D. Seleznev
Formulas for the separation potential and the separative power have been obtained in the present work by
generalizing the classical theory of Dirac, with the observance of his two axioms, to the case of a multicomponent
mixture without considering a concrete cascade scheme. The resulting expressions are general characteristics
of a separation process, since they are applicable to any separation methods and are independentof the form of the
components in the mixture. They can be used in constructing actual cascades for separation of multicomponent
mixtures and in determining the indices of their effi ciency.
Keywords: separation theory, separation potential, multicomponent mixtures, cascades.
Ural Federal University named after the fi rst President of Russia B. N. El′tsin, 19 Mir Str., Ekaterinburg, 620002, Russia; email: . Translated from Inzhenerno-FizicheskiiZhurnal, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 501–508, May– June, 2014. Original article submitted November 13, 2013.
OPTIMIZATION OF THE PROCESS OF SEPARATION OF A TERNARY MIXTURE IN A CASCADE OF ELEMENTS WITH THREE TAKEOFFS
V. A. Palkina and I. S. Igoshinb
Consideration has been given to the problem of separation of a ternary mixture in a cascade with an arbitrary scheme of connection of stages composed of elements with three takeoffs. A method of optimization of cascade schemes has been proposed that is based on numerical sorting of the concentrations of two components in one takeoff of the stages and an analytical calculation of the remaining parameters of the cascade. The method is applicable at large separation factors of the stages and any optimality criteria of the process of separation. A numerical experiment has been conducted on the basis of the characteristics of a model mixture; the distinctive features of optimization of various cascade schemes for the minimum criterion of the overall feed fl ow have been established.
Keywords: separation theory, enriching cascades, separating element, ternary mixture, separation factor.
aUral Federal University named after the fi rst President of Russia B. N. El′tsin, 19 Mir Str., Ekaterinburg, 620002, Russia; bAngarsk Electrolysis Chemical Combine, Angarsk, Irkutsk Region, 665804, Russia; email: . Translated from Inzhenerno-Fizicheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 509–516, May–June, 2014. Original article submitted November 4, 2013.
A NOVEL MODEL FOR PREDICTING THE SURFACE TENSION OF BINARY SOLUTIONS
Ali Akbar Amooey
A new surface tension model based on the thermodynamic defi nition of the surface tension is suggested. By utilizing the Wilson equation to represent the excess Gibbs free energy, the three-parameter surface tension equation for binary liquid mixtures is derived. The validity of the equation is tested in terms of correlations for 160 binary systems. An overall percent average absolute deviation of 0.24% is obtained.
Keywords: surface tension, Gibbs free energy, binary liquid mixtures.
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran; email: aliakbar_amooey@yahoo. com. Published in Inzhenerno-Fizicheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 517–523, May–June, 2014. Original article submitted September 30, 2013.
HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER IN DISPERSED AND POROUS MEDIA
CONDITIONS FOR THE ABSENCE AND OCCURRENCE OF FILTRATION CONVECTION IN A COMPRESSIBLE GAS
M. M. Ramazanov
Conditions for the absence and occurrence of fi ltration convection in a compressible gas have been investigated. Numerical experiments have been carried out for a horizontal porous layer saturated with perfect gas and Van der Waals gas. Analytical expressions for thermomechanical fi elds of this layer at its mechanical equilibrium have been given. Based on a comparative analysis of results obtained for the indicated gases, their general regularities have been revealed for the compressibility of the considered layer and the temperature difference in it.
Keywords: convection, heat and mass transfer, Van der Waals gas, near-critical medium, porous medium, non- Boussinesq parameters.
Institute of Problems of Geothermics, Dagestan Scientifi c Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 39a I. Shamil′ Ave., Makhachkala, 367030, Russia; email: . Translated from Inzhenerno-Fizicheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 524–530, May–June, 2014. Original article submitted September 2, 2013.
MODELING OF FILTRATION INVESTIGATIONS UNDER UNSTABLE CONDITIONS OF INJECTION OF WATER INTO HYPERLOW-PERMEABILITY SAMPLES
A. Ya. Davletbaev and D. Z. Ishkin
We report the results of modeling laboratory experiments for unstable fi ltration conditions. It has been shown that the form of pressure curves is infl uenced by the spurious volume coeffi cient, the length of the core sample, and the collectorpermeability. We have diagnosed by the log-log curves of the pressure and its logarithmic derivative the liquid fl ow conditions for early and later times of the nonstationary fi ltration experiment infl uencing the possibility of estimating the collector permeability.
Keywords: porous medium, low-permeability collector, unstable fi ltration conditions, laboratory experiment.
Bashkir State University, 32 Z. Validi Str., Ufa, 450074, Russia; email: . Translated from Inzhenerno-Fizicheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 531–538, May–June, 2014. Original article submitted December 17, 2013.
RADIAL MODEL OF STEAM EXTRACTION FROM A HIGH-TEMPERATURE BED BY MEANS OF A SINGLE WELL
A. B. Alkhasov and M. M. Ramazanov
A radial quasi-stationary model of steam extraction from a high-temperature bed is considered. It is shown that regimes accompanied by water boiling in a well or in permeable rocks may exist. The conditions for the liquid superheating in the near-well region and realizations of the front regime of steam generation in a bed are determined. The resultant parameters are compared with similar values obtained in a plane one-dimensional self-similar case.
Keywords: steam generation in a bed, heat and mass transfer, regimes of fl ows, radial model, analytical solution.
Institute of the Problems of Geothermics, Dagestan Scientifi c Center, 39a I. Shamil Ave., Makhachkala, 367030, Russia; email: . Translated from Inzhenerno-Fizicheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 539–548, May– June, 2014. Original article submitted December 21, 2013.
LAMINAR NONISOTHERMAL FLOW OF A VISCOUS FLUID WITH SOLID PARTICLES PAST A ROTATING CIRCULAR CYLINDER
I. V. Morenko and V. L. Fedyaev
Unsteady nonisothermal traverse fl ow of an impurity-containing viscous fl uid past a rotating circular cylinder has been investigated with account of the mechanical and thermal interaction of the carrier and dispersed phases. The processes occurring have been described mathematically with the Lagrange approach. The infl uence of the impurity
on the fl ow pattern has been analyzed; the dependences of the drag coeffi cient, the lifting-force amplitude, and the Nusselt number of the cylinder on the relative rotational velocity of its surface have been determined.
Keywords: rotating circular cylinder, viscous fl uid with an impurity, Lagrangian approach.
Institute of Mechanics and Mechanical Engineering, Kazan Scientifi c Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2/31 Lobachevskii Str., Kazan′, 420111, Russia; email: . Translated from Inzhenerno-Fizicheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 549–555, May–June, 2014. Original article submitted November 19, 2013.
A METHOD FOR APPROXIMATE SOLUTION OF THE RIEMANN PROBLEM FOR THE MULTIVELOCITY MODEL OF A HETEROGENEOUS MEDIUM
V. S. Surov
An iteration method for solving the Riemann problem is presented which is based on the characteristic relations and can be used in the numerical schemes of the Godunov method for integrating the equations that describe the fl ow of a multivelocity heterogeneous mixture in an adiabatic approximation.
Keywords: multivelocity heterogeneous medium, hyperbolic systems of nondivergent form, Riemann solvers.
South Ural State University, 76 Lenin Ave., Chelyabinsk, 454080, Russia; email: . Translated from Inzhenerno-Fizicheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 556–563, May–June, 2014. Original article submitted December 10, 2013.
MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR DETERMINATING THE EFFICIENCY OF SEPARATION OF AEROSOLS IN DRY AND SPRAYED CHANNELS
A. G. Laptev and A. R. Iskhakov
Turbulent fl ow of aerosols in a cylindrical channel has been investigated. Differential equations of transfer of dispersed particles have been considered, and a two-dimensional equation with a mass source has been solved. Different numerical experiments have been conducted on the basis of the model proposed. Air with water droplets was used as a gas-liquid mixture in the calculations. The infl uence of the spraying of the channel, the fl ow velocity, the diameter of dispersed particles, and the water concentration on the separation effi ciency of an aerosol have been studied. Agreement with experimental data has been shown. A mathematical model has been developed that can be used in designing gas-cleaning apparatuses for enterprises of various industries.
Keywords: two-dimensional model, aerosol, turbulent diffusion, separation, cylindrical channel, parabolic equation, difference scheme.
Kazan State Power Engineering University, 51 Krasnoselskaya Str., Kazan, 420066, Russia; email: aliskhakov@ gmail.com. Translated from Inzhenerno-Fizicheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 564–569, May–June, 2014. Original article submitted December 9, 2013.
CALCULATION OF THE HEAD LOSS IN A KEROSENE–AIR FLOW UPON CHANGE IN THE TWO-PHASE-FLOW STRUCTURE ON AN INCLINED PORTION OF A PIPELINE
É. L. Kitanin,a E. É. Kitanina,a P. A. Kravtsov,b D. A. Bondarenko,c and D. Morrisond
A procedure for calculating of the head loss in two-phase fl ow on an inclined portion of a pipeline has been described and substantiated. The developed procedure is applicable to two-phase fl ows characterized by a very low mass gas content (x ~ 10–4) butan appreciable fl ow-rate volume gas content (α ~ 0.1–0.5). A computational scheme for the coordinate of change of regimes has been proposed on the basis of the available experimental material. A relation for calculation of the change in the pressure on the pipeline′s inclined part has been presented that accounts for the friction loss and for the change in the kinetic energy of the fl ow in the process of change of regimes.
Keywords: experiment, procedure, liberation of air, chromatograph, aviation fuel, low pressure, two-phase fl ow, gas content, fl ow rate of the fuel.
aSt. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 29 Politekhnicheskaya Str., St. Petersburg, 195251, Russia; email: ; bB. P. Konstantinov Petersburg University of Nuclear Physics, St. Petersburg, Russia; cInternational Scientifi c-Research Institute for Management Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia; dAirbus Operations Ltd., Bristol, Filton, UK. Translated from Inzhenerno-Fizicheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 570–579, May–June, 2014. Original article submitted December 21, 2013.
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE PROCESSES OF ICING ON AIRFOILS WITH FORMATION OF A "BARRIER" ICE
A. A. Prikhod′ko and S. V. Alekseenko
Software and methods allowing one to model the processes of formation of a "barrier" ice on the unprotected part of an airfoil have been developed with the use of the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations for a compressible gas, which are closed with the aid of the Spalart–Allmaras model of turbulence. An inertial model is used to describe the motion of overcooled water droplets. In modeling the process of ice accretion, differential equations of mass, momentum, and energy conservation are used for each element of the surface. The initial equations are made discrete by means of the control volume approach. The infl uence of the height of ice accretions and of their location on the character of air–droplet fl ow past a NACA 0012 airfoil and on its aerodynamic characteristics has been analyzed.
Keywords: icing, airfoil, Navier–Stokes equations, model of turbulence, control volume approach, barrier ice, aerodynamic characteristics.
Dnepropetrovsk National University, 72 Gagarin Ave., Dnepropetrovsk, 49050, Ukraine; email: . Translated from Inzhenerno-Fizicheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 580–589, May–June, 2014. Original article submitted December 16, 2013.
HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER IN QUENCHING THE REACTION OF THERMAL DECOMPOSITION OF A FOREST COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL WITH A GROUP OF WATER DROPS
G. V. Kuznetsov and P. A. Strizhak
We have carried out computational investigations of the processes of heat and mass transfer in quenching the reaction of thermal decomposition of the typical forest combustible materials (birch leaves and pine and fi r needles) with a group of water drops. It has been established that the termination time of pyrolysis is infl uenced by the integral parameter characterizing the relative position of drops and the temperature of the vapor-gas mixture over the forest combustible material. The thicknesses of layers providing termination of pyrolysis of evaporated liquid materials for a group of drops have been determined.
Keywords: heat and mass transfer, thermal decomposition, forest combustible, near-surface heated layer, water, drops.
Tomsk National Research Polytechnical University, 30 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, 634050, Tomsk, Russia; email: . Translated from Inzhenerno-Fizicheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 590–598, May–June, 2014. Original article submitted April 25, 2013.
MEASUREMENT OF THE EQUILIBRIUM CONTACT ANGLE OF WETTING AS A METHOD OF STUDYING THE STATE OF THE SURFACE ENERGY AT THE SOLID–LIQUID–GAS INTERFACE
V. M. Gasanov
An equation to calculate the equilibrium contact angle of wetting is obtained. The results of measurement of the equilibrium contact angle of wetting various substrates with mercury are presented, and the surface energies of solid bodies have been calculated on the basis of thermodynamic parameters.
Keywords: equilibrium contact angle of wetting, interphase energy, surface energy of a solid phase, adhesion work, capillary pressure, spreading degree.
M. D. Millionshschikov Groznyi State Oil Technical University (Derbent Branch), 54 Vokzal′naya Str., Derbent, 368600, Republic of Dagestan, Russia; email: . Translated from Inzhenerno-Fizicheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 599–604, May–June, 2014. Original article submitted August 11, 2013.
EFFECT OF HALL CURRENT AND CHEMICAL REACTION ON MHD FLOW ALONG AN ACCELERATED POROUS FLAT PLATE WITH INTERNAL HEAT ABSORPTION/GENERATION
M. Kar,a S. N. Sahoo,b and G. C. Dashb
The effect of the Hall current on unsteady free convection of an electrically conducting incompressible viscous fl uid past an accelerated vertical porous plate with internal heat absorption/generation in the presence of various species (H2, CO2, H2O, and NH3) undergoing a fi rst-order chemical reaction in a uniform transverse magnetic fi eld
is studied. The role of pertinent parameters characterizing the fl ow fi eld is discussed. The governing equations are solved using the Hhn(x) functions. It is revealed that heat generation coupled with injection results in a back flow rise. A linearly varying velocity of the plate causes a sudden rise or fall of the velocity in the vicinity of the plate,
whereas an asymptotically varying velocity leads to a uniform fall. The presence of chemical reaction increases the secondary velocity by 40%.
Keywords: Hall current, heat absorption/generation, chemical reaction, accelerated porous plate.
aDepartment of Mathematics, Christ College, Cuttack-753007, Odisha, India; bDepartment of Mathematics, Institute of Technical Education and Research, Siksha "O" Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar-751030, Odisha, India; email: sachi.sahoo@ yahoo.com. Published in Inzhenerno-Fizicheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 605–615, May–June, 2014. Original article submitted October 22, 2012; revision submitted October 7, 2013.
HYDROGASDYNAMICS IN TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES
NUMERICAL AND ANALYTICAL STUDY OF NONLINEAR EFFECTS OF TRANSONIC FLOW PAST A WING AIRFOIL IN OSCILLATION OF ITS SURFACE ELEMENT
S. M. Aul′chenko,a V. P. Zamuraev,a,b and A. P. Kalininaa,b
The present work is devoted to a criterial analysis and mathematical modeling of the infl uence of forced oscillations of surface elements of a wing airfoil on the shock-wave structure of transonic fl ow past it. Parameters that govern the regimes of interaction of the oscillatory motion of airfoil sections with the breakdown compression shock have been established. The qualitative and quantitative infl uence of these parameters on the wave resistance of the airfoil has been investigated.
Keywords: transonic fl ow, wing airfoil, vibration of a surface element, wave resistance, Euler equations.
aS. A. Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 4/1 Institutskaya Str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia; bNovosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogov Str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia; email: . Translated from Inzhenerno-Fizicheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 616–627, May–June, 2014. Original article submitted December 11, 2013.
ON THE HYDRAULIC SHOCK IN PIPES WITH CONSIDERATION OF THE TEMPERATURE FACTOR
F. G. Veliev
Differential equations describing the propagation of a shock wave in a pipeline are obtained with consideration of the adiabaticity of the process and corresponding formulas have been derived to estimate the velocity of sound and the greatest increment of pressure in a pipeline in the presence of a hydraulic shock. Results of an experimental work
pointing to the necessity of taking the temperature factor into account when evaluating the parameters of a hydraulic shock in pipelines are presented..
Keywords: shock wave, hydraulic shock, pipeline, adiabatic process.
Azerbaijan State Petroleum Academy, 20 Azadlyg Ave., Baku, AZ1010, Azerbaijan; email: fuadveliev@hotmail. com. Translated from Inzhenerno-Fizicheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 628–631, May–June, 2014. Original article submitted January 19, 2014.
VISUALIZATION OF THE INTERACTION OF WEAK DISTURBANCES OF A FLOW WITH THE BOUNDARY LAYER
A. D. Chaplits
Results of experimental investigations of fl ows around wedge-shaped obstacles of different height installed in a supersonic conical nozzle at M = 2.7 by the methods of color surface visualization and "laser knife" are presented. The infl uence of the interaction of weak disturbances of these fl ows by the passive side of the obstacles with the boundary layer on their structure and behavior was determined. The side force of the nozzle was measured.
Keywords: color visualization, inner channel, Laval nozzle, wedge-shaped obstacle, weak disturbances, boundary layer.
Institute of Technical Mechanics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, State Cosmic Agency of Ukraine, 15 I. V. Leshko-Popel′ Str., Dnepropetrovsk, 49600, Ukraine. Translated from Inzhenerno-Fizicheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 632–638, May–June, 2014. Original article submitted December 30, 2013.
VISUALIZATION BY THE METHOD OF COLOR SHADOW IMAGING USING THE RESIDUAL CHROMATISM OF AN OPTICAL SYSTEM
A. D. Chaplits
Results of the visualization of the gas fl ow in the inner channel of an apparatus for reducing the sound of a shot using the residual chromatism of a Toepler lens device with an adjustable location of the light source are presented. Color shadow images were obtained without introduction of additional prisms, light fi lters, or diaphragms into the lighting
part of this device. The images obtained made it possible to determine the features of the indicated flow.
Keywords: Toepler device, color visualization, residual chromatism, inner channel.
Institute of Technical Mechanics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, State Cosmic Agency of Ukraine, 15 I. V. Leshko-Popel′ Str., Dnepropetrovsk, 49600, Ukraine. Translated from Inzhenerno-Fizicheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 639–643, May–June, 2014. Original article submitted December 30, 2013.
INFLUENCE OF PRESSURE OSCILLATION FREQUENCY ON CAVITATION EROSION OF MATERIALS
R. F. Ganiev, D. A. Zhebynev, and A. M. Fel′dman
UDC 620.193.15, 620.193.16
This paper presents the results of investigations of the cavitation erosion of metals caused by pressure oscillations excited by means of a hydrodynamic oscillator in cylindrical tubes closed on one end in the absence of fl uid fl ow in them. Intense cavitation zones were created in the region of the ends of tubes plugged with test pieces. It has been shown that the degree of cavitation erosion of the specimen material is determined by the oscillation amplitude and the frequency of nonlinear pressure oscillations in the tube. The maximum erosion rate of test specimens was observed under excitation of resonances of standing waves in the tubes.
Keywords: wave technology, cavitation, nonlinear oscillations, nonlinear resonances, cavitation erosion of lead.
Branch of the A. A. Blagonravov Institute of Machine Science of the Russian Academy of Sciences "Scientifi c Center of Wave Mechanics and Technology of the Russian Academy of Sciences," 4 Bardin Str., Moscow, 119991, Russia; email: . Translated from Inzhenerno-Fizicheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 644–649, May–June, 2014. Original article submitted November 28, 2013.
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE SPECIFIC FEATURES OF FORMATION OF CAVITATION ZONES IN INTENSE ULTRASOUND FIELDS
B. I. Bakhtin,a A. I. Ivashov,b A. V. Kuznetsov,b and A. S. Skorokhodova
We have investigated the specifi c features of excitation and formation of cavitation zones in ultrasound fi elds with a sound power density of up to 37 W/cm2 generated by a rod radiator with a power consumption of up to 5 kW. The infl uence of hydrodynamical fl ows generated in a liquid medium by the rod waveguide itself on the formation and characteristics of cavitation zones in an intense ultrasound fi eld has been considered for the fi rst time. The possibility of increasing the physical activity of cavitation by introducing activating additives into the medium has been explored. On the basis of the investigations made, proposals have been formulated for increasing signifi cantly the cavitation zone activity and the effi ciency of cavitation treatment of media and materials.
Keywords: ultrasonically induced cavitation, ultrasonic radiator, cavitation zone, cavitation activity, cavitation bubbles, cumulative microjets.
aM. V. Keldysh Research Center, 8 Onezhskaya Str., Moscow, 125438, Russia; bN. É. Bauman State Technical University, 5 2nd Baumanskaya Str., Moscow, 105005, Russia; email: . Translated from Inzhenerno-Fizicheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 650–663, May–June, 2014. Original article submitted November 1, 2013.
OBTAINING CARBON NANOMATERIALS ON A Ni–Mo-BENTONITE CATALYST
G. E. Sataeva, N. M. Daurenbek, and M. K. Myrzakhmet
Investigations into obtaining granulated sorbents based on bentonite clays of the Kyngrack fi eld have been carried out. A pilot-production technology for obtaining carbon composite materials (sorbents and catalysts) has been proposed. The process of formation of catalytic carbon in composites based on Ni–Mo bentonite has been studied on a semicommercial continuous laboratory reactor. It has been established that tubular-fi brous nanosize particles are predominantly formed in the pyrolysis of methane with a Ni–Mo-bentonite catalyst. The effi ciency of activation of these sorbents is infl uenced by the concentration of the clay in them and by their temperature, and also by the consumption of an acid and the time of contact between the solvent and the acid. The structure of the formed nanotubes and nanofi bers has been determined with a scanning electron microscope. Optimum parameters and kinetic regularities of the process of obtaining nanotubes and nanofi bers at the intermolecular level through their pyrolysis from methane have been obtained.
Keywords: sorbent, carbon catalyst, nanotubes, nanofi bers, bentonite clay, catalytic pyrolysis, activation, overcarbonization.
L. N. Gumilev Eurasian National University, 5 Munaitpasov Str., Astana, 010008, Kazakhstan; email: myrzakh@ gmail.com. Translated from Inzhenerno-Fizicheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 664–668, May–June, 2014. Original article submitted October 28, 2013.
MECHANOCHEMICAL TREATMENT, FEATURES OF THE STRUCTURE, PROPERTIES, AND REACTIVITY OF SHS SYSTEMS BASED ON NATURAL MATERIALS. PART 2. MECHANOCHEMICAL SYNTHESIS OF FINELY DISPERSED NANOSTRUCTURED WOLLASTONITE-BASED SYSTEMS
Z. A. Mansurov, N. N. Mofa, T. A. Shabanova, and B. S. Sadykov
We have investigated the laws of refi nement and modifi cation of wollastonite particles in the process of mechanochemical treatment with the participation of nitrogen- and carbon-containing organic compounds. The features of formation of capsulizing layers on the surface of refi ned particles and their structure and morphology depending on the type of modifi er have been determined. It has been established that mechanochemical treatment of wollastonite particles leads to an increase in their activity and the formation of polymer fi lms of various confi gurations with the participation of carbon compounds.
Keywords: mechanochemistry, wollastonite, modifi cation, nanocomposites.
Institute for Combustion Problems, 172 Bogenbai Batyr Str., Almaty, 050012, Kazakhstan; email: zmansurov@ kaznu.kz. Translated from Inzhenerno-Fizicheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 669–676, May–June, 2014. Original article submitted February 24, 2014.
TRANSFER PROCESSES IN LOW-TEMPERATURE PLASMA
ELECTRIC MICRODISCHARGES IN LIQUIDS AND PROSPECTS OF THEIR USE IN PLASMA CHEMISTRY
G. R. Ganieva, D. I. Ziganshin, M. M. Aukhadeev, and B. A. Timerkaev
An original method of decomposition of heavy hydrocarbons into light fractions in the plasma of a microarc discharge initiated between electrodes submerged in a liquid is proposed. The characteristics of the microarc discharges between electrodes submerged in different liquids were investigated. A chromatographic analysis of the gases formed in this case has been performed.
Keywords: plasma, plasma chemistry, electric arc, microdischarge, pyrolysis, fuel oil, hydrocarbon material.
A. N. Tupolev Kazan′ National Research Technical University, 10 K. Marx Str., Kazan′, 420111, Russia; email: . Translated from Inzhenerno-Fizicheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 677–681, May–June, 2014. Original article submitted January 1, 2014.
PHYSICS OF LASER-INDUCED PLASMA STREAMS UNDER IRRADIATION OF METALS WITH NANOSECOND LASER RADIATION PULSES AT ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
K. V. Kozadaev
We have investigated the physics of the processes of incipient formation, development, and breakdown of vaporplasma streams formed under the action of high-power (108–109 W/cm2) nanosecond laser pulses on massive metal targets in air. The main theoretical models of the process of laser erosion of metals by nanosecond pulses have been considered. A comparison has been made between the results of experimental and theoretical investigations of the laser erosion processes.
Keywords: laser erosion of metals, nanosecond laser pulse, erosion laser torch, hydrodynamic model, condensation, metal nanoparticles.
A. N. Sevchenko Research Institute of Applied Physical Problems, Belarusian State University, 7 Kurchatov Str., 220108, Minsk, Belarus; email: . Translated from Inzhenerno-Fizicheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 682–693, May–June, 2014. Original article submitted October 4, 2013.
ON DETERMINATION OF ARC CURRENTS IN THREE-PHASE SINGLE-CHAMBER PLASMA GENERATORS
V. B. Kovshechnikov, G. G. Antonov, A. A. Ufi mtsev, and A. V. Surov
UDC 533.9.072; 537.523
Two methods of determining the arc currents in three-phase single-chamber alternating-current generators are presented. In the fi rst method, the current traversing one of the electrode spacings in a three-phase network is disregarded. The second method is based on the consideration of the general mechanisms of the gas fl ows around arcs. In this method, the volt-ampere characteristic of an arc discharge is constructed from the calculated values of the voltage drop across the arc that are closest to the measured values of this drop.
Keywords: plasma generator, current, arc, volt-ampere characteristic.
Institute of Electrophysics and Electric Power Engineering, Russian Academy of Sciences, 18 Dvortsovaya Nab., St. Petersburg, 191186, Russia; email: . Translated from Inzhenerno-Fizicheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 694–699, May–June, 2014. Original article submitted December 20, 2013.
HEAT CONDUCTION AND HEAT TRANSFER IN TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES
PROCESSES OF HEAT TRANSFER IN RHEOLOGICALLY UNSTABLE MIXTURES OF ORGANIC ORIGIN
S. I. Tkachenko, N. V. Pishenina, and T. Yu. Rumyantseva
The dependence of the coeffi cient of heat transfer from the heat-exchange surface to a rheologically unstable organic mixture on the thermohydrodynamic state of the mixture and its prehistory has been established. A method for multivariant investigation of the process of heat transfer in compound organic mixtures has been proposed; this method makes it possible to evaluate the character and peculiarities of change in the rheological structure of the mixture as functions of the thermohydrodynamic conditions of its treatment. The possibility of evaluating the intensity of heat transfer in a biotechnological system for production of energy carriers at the step of its designing by multivariant investigation of the heat-transfer intensity in rheologically unstable organic mixtures with account of their prehistory has been shown..
Keywords: heat-transfer intensity, non-Newtonian liquid, thixotropic liquid, organic waste, organic mixture, biotechnology.
Vinnitsa National Technical University, 95 Khmel′nitskoe Highway, Vinnitsa, 21021, Ukraine; email: pisheniniv@ mail.ru. Translated from Inzhenerno-Fizicheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 700–707, May–June, 2014. Original article submitted October 29, 2013.
TEMPERATURE DROP OVER THE SOLDERING ROD LENGTH
V. N. Shtennikov and V. D. Seleznev
UDC 621.372; 621.791.3
An analytical dependence of the temperature drop over the soldering rod length on its geometric and thermophysical parameters is obtained. It allows one to accurately maintain the soldering rod temperature that is required by the technological process without applying additional instrumentation.
Keywords: soldering rod, heat transfer, soldering, temperature sensor.
Ural Federal University named after the fi rst President of Russia B. N. El′tsin, 19 Mir Str., Ekaterinburg, 620002, Russia; email: . Translated from Inzhenerno-Fizicheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 708–710, May– June, 2014. Original article submitted October 25, 2013.
CALCULATION OF THE RADIATIVE HEAT-EXCHANGE AREAS IN A LARGE-SCALE FURNACE WITH THE USE OF THE MONTE CARLO METHOD
A. D. Matthew,a C. K. Tan,a P. A. Roach,a J. Ward,a J. Broughtonb and A. Heeleyb
An improved approach to the simulation of the radiative heat exchange in a furnace is proposed. This approach is realized with the use of the computer program REFORM based on the well-known Monte Carlo ray tracing algorithms. The method proposed allows one to determine the factors of radiative heat exchange in furnaces for which the method of direct numerical integration is diffi cult to use due to their geometries. The indicated REFORM program was validated and the results obtained with it were compared with corresponding existing solutions. It has been established that the approach proposed makes it possible to more accurately represent the radiative heat exchange between a steel load and its surroundings.
Keywords: Monte Carlo method, reheating furnace, radiative heat-exchange surface.
aFaculty of Advanced Technology, School of Engineering, University of South Wales, Llantwit Road, Pontypridd, Wales; email: ; bTata Steel UK, Swinden Technology Centre, Rotherham, South Yorkshire, England; email: . Published in Inzhenerno-Fizicheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 711–720, May– June, 2014. Original article submitted November 20, 2012.
NEW MODEL OF HEAT TRANSFER IN THE PROCESS OF NUCLEATE BOILING IN A POOL: PREDICTION AND ASSESSMENT
Fella Chouarfa, M. E. Hocine Benhamza, and Malek Bendjaballah
A new relation for the heat transfer through the boundary between the solid, liquid and vapor phases has been derived. The new model f heat transfer was compared with well-known relations for the heat transfer in the process of boiling in a pool and with a large number of reliable experimental data. The results obtained have shown that the model proposed correlates well with the experimental data obtained for different fl uids in the regime of partial nucleate boiling. This model can also be extrapolated for the case of fully developed nucleate boiling.
Keywords: nucleate boiling, heat transfer, experimental design method, pool.
Laboratoire d'Analyses Industrielles et Génie des Matériaux LAIGM, Université de 8 Mai 1945 Guelma, 24000, P.O. Box 401, Algeria; email: , . Published in Inzhenerno-Fizicheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 721–729, May–June, 2014. Original article submitted December 10, 2012.
HEAT TRANSFER IN PHASE TRANSITIONS
STUDY OF THE EVAPORATION OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID: MODELING AND EXPERIMENT
A. A. Salin, A. D. Galeev, and S. I. Ponikarov
A mathematical description of the evaporation of a binary solution from the free surface of a spill has been proposed. Results of experimental study on the evaporation of hydrochloric acid in a wind tunnel have been presented. It has been established that the resistance of the evaporating component to transfer in the liquid phase exerts a substantial infl uence in the intensity of evaporation of hydrochloric acid. The effective diffusion coeffi cient has been determined experimentally, which allows for the infl uence of the resistance to mass transfer in the liquid phase on the intensity of evaporation of the solution..
Keywords: binary solution, evaporation diffusion, numerical modeling.
A. N. Tupolev Kazan National Research Technological University, 68 K. Marx Str., Kazan, 420015, Russia; email: . Translated from Inzhenerno-Fizicheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 730–738, May–June, 2014. Original article submitted November 19, 2013.