**HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER IN DISPERSED AND POROUS MEDIA ****FRACTAL PROPERTIES OF CAPILLARY IMBIBITION OF ROCKS**

V. L. Barabanov^{a} and A. A. Lyubushin^{b}

UDC 622.276

In a series of laboratory experiments, the deterministic and fractal parameters of spontaneous capillary imbibition

of rocks have been investigated. The capillary imbibition of higher-permeability samples was characterized

by a sharp increase in the saturation at the initial stage and a further increase that is not described

by the power law. Analysis of the parameters of the multifractal spectrum of water-saturation variations of

the investigated samples in the process of capillary imbibition has shown that the generalized Hurst constant

tends to decrease with time in the process of imbibition.

Keywords: deterministic and fractal parameters of spontaneous capillary imbibition of rocks, multifractal spectrum

of water-saturation variations.

PAGE 1

**INITIAL STAGE OF IMBIBITION OF A POROUS MATERIAL ****WITH ALLOWANCE FOR CONVECTIVE MASS TRANSFER**

A. I. Moshinskii

UDC 532.62:66.02

Consideration has been given to a model of heat- and mass-exchange processes in a porous body with two

types of pores that is suitable for description of the initial stage of penetration of a substance into a porous

system (or of the inverse process: withdrawal of a substance from it). Convective transfer of the substance is

allowed for in large channels (pores). The solution of the problem with supplementary conditions, which are

typical in practice and with which the kinetic function of imbibition (withdrawal) of the porous medium and

the density of the substance flux from the body were found, has been obtained. Certain limiting cases have

been investigated.

Keywords: mass exchange, porous body, two-component nature, imbibition.

PAGE 12

**SUPPRESSION OF OSCILLATIONS OF THE VAPOR–LIQUID ****PHASE BOUNDARY IN BOILING OF SUPERFLUID HELIUM ****INSIDE A POROUS BODY**

A. P Kryukov and Yu. Yu. Puzina

UDC 536.24

This work seeks to investigate the processes of boiling of helium-II on the heater surface under various conditions.

The task of determining dynamic characteristics in the process of evolution of the vapor film on the

surface of a cylindrical heater in the presence of a confining coaxial porous structure is set. The processes

in a free volume and under constrained conditions are compared. The existing experimental data on the boiling

of helium-II on the sphere surface are analyzed. The results of video filming of the boiling of superfluid

helium under zero-gravity conditions on the surface of a thin wire are interpreted.

Keywords: superfluid helium, film boiling, porous structure, zero gravity, experiment.

PAGE 23

**MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TRANSIENT FLOW ****THROUGH A POROUS MEDIUM BOUNDED ****BY A HOT VERTICAL PLATE IN THE PRESENCE ****OF RADIATION: A THEORETICAL ANALYSIS**

Sahin Ahmed and Karabi Kalita

UDC 536.35

The transient magnetohydrodynamic free convective flow of a viscous, incompressible, electrically conducting,

gray, absorbing–emitting, but non-scattering, optically thick fluid medium which occupies a semi-infinite porous

region adjacent to an infinite hot vertical plate moving with a constant velocity is analyzed. A uniform

magnetic field is assumed to be applied transversely to the flow. The Darcian viscous flow model for the porous

medium is used. The momentum and thermal boundary-layer equations under physically realistic boundary

conditions are solved through the use of the Laplace transform technique. The influence of the

characteristic parameters of the problem on the velocity, temperature, and shear stress is investigated.

Keywords: magnetohydrodynamic flow, radiation–conduction, Darcian model, Rosseland approximation, inverse

permeability, Laplace transforms.

PAGE 30

**ON THE VORTEX EJECTION IN A CHAMBER ****WITH A SWIRLING AIR FLOW**

E. A. Pitsukha,^{a} Yu. S. Teplitskii,^{b} and V. A. Borodulya^{b}

UDC 532.529

The longitudinal (axial) velocities of the air in a vortex chamber of diameter 0.393 m were experimentally investigated

at different values of the tangential and bottom blows. On the basis of the data obtained, the back

(adjoint) flow of air blown from the atmosphere through the outlet of the chamber (vortex ejection) was calculated.

The dependence of this flow on the relative radius of the outlet of the chamber, the Rossby number,

and the value of the bottom blow was determined.

Keywords: vortex ejection, tangential blow, bottom blow, outlet, longitudinal (axial) velocity of air, Rossby

number, swirling air flow.

PAGE 40

**ON THE VELOCITIES OF PARTICLES IN THE VORTEX ZONE ****OF A VORTEX-BED CHAMBER**

Yu. S. Teplitskii^{a} and E. A. Pitsukha^{b}

UDC 536.529

A simple method for estimating the velocities of small particles in the vortex zone of a vortex-bed chamber,

which is based on the measurement of the velocity of a gas in this chamber and on the balance of the forces

acting on these particles, has been developed.

Keywords: vortex-bed chamber, vortex zone, gravity force, Coriolis force, centrifugal force, drag force, velocity

of a gas, velocity of a particle, Stokes formula.

PAGE 46

**INFLUENCE OF REYNOLDS AND STROUHAL NUMBERS ****ON THE DIRECTION OF THE WAVE FORCE ACTING**

**
ON INCLUSIONS IN A STANDING SINUSOIDAL WAVE**

L. A. Gubaidullin and P. P. Osipov

UDC 539.37

The inclusion drift in a standing sinusoidal fluid-velocity wave at various Reynolds and Strouhal numbers

under the action of the viscous force, the virtual mass force, and the buoyancy force has been investigated.

It has been established that at low frequencies the wave force of dense inclusions is directed to the nearest

node, and for loose inclusions it is directed to the antinode of the fluid-velocity wave. For a given inclusion

density, as the standing wave frequency increases, its threshold value, above which the direction of the wave

force reverses, is attained sooner or later. For various Reynolds and Strouhal numbers, the dependences of

the squared threshold drag coefficient on the inclusion density number have been found. These dependences

show that with increasing Reynolds and Strouhal numbers the threshold value of the squared drag coefficient

decreases markedly.

Keywords: particle drift, forces in acoustic wave fields.

PAGE 51

**HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER IN THE PROCESS ****OF MOVEMENT OF WATER DROPS ****IN A HIGH-TEMPERATURE GAS MEDIUM**

O. V. Vysokomornaya, G. V. Kuznetsov, and P. A. Strizhak

UDC 536.4

The heat and mass transfer in the process of movement of water drops in a high-temperature gas medium

was numerically investigated. The regimes and conditions of formation of the zone of mutual influence of two

drops were determined on the basis of an analysis of the temperature and concentration fields of the water

vapor in the neighborhood of the trajectory of movement of the drops. The times of existence (complete

evaporation) of one and two drops as a result of their interaction with the high-temperature products of combustion

of a typical condensed liquid substance were compared. It has been established that only in the case

where the distance between the two drops is small is the intensity of evaporation of water from them substantially

lower than that of a single drop.

Keywords: heat and mass transfer, high-temperature gas medium, drop, condensed liquid substance, temperature

and concentration fields of the water vapor.

PAGE 62

**INVESTIGATION OF THE PROCESS OF DRYING OF PLANE ****MOIST MATERIALS BY THE METHOD OF GENERALIZED**

**
VARIABLES**

A. I. Ol’shanskii

UDC 66.047.37

Equations for calculation of the basic parameters of the kinetics of drying in the period of a dropping rate

have been established. A graphoanalytical method of calculating the process of drying in the second period

has been presented.

Keywords: generalized time, relative drying rate, relative temperature, Nusselt number, Rehbinder number, relative

moisture content.

PAGE 69

**INVESTIGATION OF THE PROCESSES OF DRYING OF POROUS CERAMICS BY THE DOKUCHAEV–SMIRNOV METHOD**

A. I. Ol’shanskii

UDC 66.047.37

The kinetics of drying of porous ceramics has been investigated by the Dokuchaev–Smirnov method. A procedure

for processing of experimental data for the calculation of the drying curve has been presented. Equations

for determination of the basic parameters of the kinetics of drying of porous ceramics have been

obtained.

Keywords: drying time, generalized drying time, maximum drying rate, critical moisture content, mean-integral

temperature.

PAGE 80

**
HYDROGASDYNAMICS IN TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES ****ROLE OF COMPRESSIBILITY IN THE FORMATION**

**
OF THE STRUCTURE OF A FLOW IN A CHANNEL ****WITH PERMEABLE WALLS**

K. N. Volkov

UDC 532.529

The flow of a compressible viscous fluid in a channel with a blow was numerically simulated. The results of

a computational experiment were compared with approximate solutions and calculation data presented in the

literature. The results obtained allow one to estimate the role of the compressibility of a fluid in the formation

of the structure of its flow in a channel with permeable walls. It has been established that the compressibility

of this fluid leads to an increase in the curvature of the lines of its flow near the blow surface and to

a filling of the profile of the axial velocity of the flow.

Keywords: blow, channel, compressibility, numerical simulation.

PAGE 88

**SIMULATION OF A NONSTATIONARY FLOW IN A CHANNEL ****WITH A DISTRIBUTED BLOW FROM THE CHANNEL WALLS ****AND FORCED PRESSURE OSCILLATIONS**

K. N. Volkov

UDC 532.529

A nonstationary flow in a channel with a blow was simulated on the basis of the Reynolds-averaged Navier–

Stokes equations and the two-parameter k–ε model of turbulence. The pressure near the left end of the channel

changes by the harmonic law. It was established that the k–ε model of turbulence can be used for

calculating the nonstationary flows formed in the indicated channel by a blow.

Keywords: turbulence, blow, channel, nonstationarity, numerical simulation.

PAGE 96

**CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER IN THE MOTION ****OF A MEDIUM UNDER THE CONDITIONS**

**
OF SUPERCRITICAL PRESSURES**

G. I. Isaev, S. D. Abdullaeva, K. S. E′iyubova,

and Z. G. Tagieva

UDC 536.24

Results for heat transfer of hydrocarbons under the conditions of supercritical pressures are presented, and

the equation for the boundary of individual heat-transfer regimes is proposed.

Keywords: critical pressure, heat transfer, heat exchange, specific heat, wall temperature, heat flux density.

PAGE 105

**MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF THE LAMINAR REGIME ****OF CONJUGATE CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER**

**
IN AN ENCLOSURE WITH AN ENERGY SOURCE ****UNDER SURFACE-RADIATION CONDITIONS**

S. G. Martyusheva and M. A. Sheremeta,b

UDC 536.24

A numerical analysis of the laminar regime of heat transfer in a square enclosure with finite-thickness heatconducting

walls in the presence of a constant-temperature heat-releasing element under the conditions of radiative

heat exchange has been made in a surface-radiation approximation. A mathematical model has been

formulated in dimensionless variables "stream function–vorticity–temperature," which was realized numerically

by the finite-difference method. Temperature and streamline distributions reflecting the influence of the reduced

emissivity factor of interior surfaces of enclosing walls, of the relative thermal-conductivity coefficient,

and of the factor of unsteadiness on the flow regimes and heat transfer have been obtained.

Keywords: heat transfer, radiative heat exchange, surface radiation, finite-difference method.

PAGE 110

**
ON THE APPEARANCE OF SELF-OSCILLATORY CONDITIONS ****OF GAS AND GAS-DROPLET MIXTURE FLOW OUT**

**
OF A VESSEL INTO A COUNTERPRESSURE MEDIUM**

V. I. Timoshenko and V. P. Galinskii

UDC 533.6.01

The present paper discusses the problem of flow of a gas and a gas-dispersion mixture out of a vessel with

given pressure and stagnation temperature through a channel into a medium with a given pressure. The influence

of energy and gas mass supplies distributed over the channel length, as well as of the kind of injected

gas and its combustion, on the flow character is analyzed. On the basis of the analysis of the results of the

numerical solution of quasi-one-dimensional dynamic equations of the gas and the gas-dispersion mixture, it

has been shown that at a certain intensity of the considered actions the transition of the flow conditions from

stationary to self-oscillatory ones can take place. From the viewpoint of the homogeneous and two-velocitytwo-

temperature models of the gas-droplet mixture the main laws of the influence of droplet evaporation on

the parameters of this transition have been elucidated.

Keywords: self-oscillations, channel flow, mass and energy supply, two-phase medium, homogeneous model,

quasi-one-dimensional equations, numerical calculation.

PAGE 120

**SIMULATION OF THE TURBULENT-ENERGY REDISTRIBUTION ****IN A DILUTED POLYMER SOLUTION**

G. A. Voropaev and N. F. Dimitrieva

UDC 532.517.4:532.526.4

A model of transfer of the Reynolds stresses in a turbulent flow of a low-concentration aqueous polymer solution,

taking into account the weight of the polymer and its concentration in this solution, is proposed. The

influence of a polymer additive in such a solution on the turbulent diffusion and the redistribution of turbulent

energy between the Reynolds-stress tensor components was numerically investigated. It is shown that a

high-molecular-weight polymer additive in the indicated flow plays a crucial role in changing the intensity of

the energy exchange between the turbulent-stress components, which manifests itself as an increase in the anisotropy

of the solution and a decrease in the turbulent-energy production and leads to a decrease in the friction

drag in the flow.

Keywords: polymer solution, turbulent boundary layer, friction drag, Toms effect, Reynolds-stress tensor.

PAGE 131

**HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER IN COMBUSTION PROCESSES ****SIMPLIFIED APPROACH TO THE SIMULATION OF DETONATION ****WAVES IN GASES**

E. S. Prokhorov

UDC 534.222.2

The possibility of simulation of gas-detonation products by an isothermal medium was considered. It is shown

that the simplified approach proposed for simulation of the propagation of detonation waves makes it possible,

in a number of cases, to approximate the results of numerical calculations of detonation-product flows by

analytical dependences with an accuracy sufficient for practical purposes.

Keywords: detonation waves, degree of overcompression of a detonation wave, detonation products, isothermal

medium, simulation.

PAGE 145

**VIBRATION COMBUSTION AS A PROSPECT FOR UTILIZING ****FIREWOOD CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOCESIUM**

Yu. V. Polezhaev,^{a} V. D. Geshele,^{a} I. P. Raskatov,^{a}

V. N. Solov’ev,^{b} I. G. Pleshchankov,^{b} L. A. Bida,^{b}

A. S. Levchuk,^{b} and G. I. Fokina^{b}

UDC 621.9

We present results of experimental investigation relevant to vibration combustion of solid fuel specimens in a

Rijke tube and the interpretation of the combustion mechanism on the basis of "energy" approach. The decrease

in the flame temperature is noted, which can be used to reduce the yield of low-boiling mineral components

of ash, e.g., radioactive 137Cs isotope, in the volatile phase. The distribution of 137Cs in thermal

conversions of firewood has been studied with the aid of computational-experimental methods, and the use of

vibration combustion for utilizing the firewood contaminated with radiocesium has been suggested to decrease

the emission of 137Cs into the surrounding medium.

Keywords: vibration combustion, Rijke tube, solid fuel, radioactive isotopes.

PAGE 152

**SELF-OSCILLATIONS OF AN UNSTABLE FUEL COMBUSTION ****IN THE COMBUSTION CHAMBER OF A LIQUID-PROPELLANT ****ROCKET ENGINE**

V. V. Gotsulenkoa and V. N. Gotsulenkob

UDC 629.7:533.6.001

The form of the self-oscillations of a vibrating combustion of a fuel in the combustion chamber of a liquidpropellant

rocket engine, caused by the fuel-combustion lag and the heat release, was determined. The character

of change in these self-oscillations with increase in the time of the fuel-combustion lag was investigated.

Keywords: relaxation self-oscillations of vibrating combustion, degenerate system, fuel-combustion lag, negative

thermal resistance.

PAGE 160

**CHART OF COMBUSTION REGIMES, SIMILARITY NUMBERS, ****AND TURBULENCE INVARIANTS**

Yu. V. Polezhaev and G. V. Gabbasova

UDC 536.461; 536.25

A method for determining the height of a diffusional turbulent flame based on dimensional analysis, including

consideration of two independent nondimensional parameters of combustion, is suggested.

Keywords: combustion, flare, turbulent jets, fuel mixture, charts of combustion regimes.

PAGE 166

**GENERAL PROBLEMS OF TRANSPORT THEORY ****STRESSED STATE OF CHEMICALLY ACTIVE POLYMERIC**

**
SYSTEMS UNDER SHEAR, ELONGATION, AND OSCILLATING ****DEFORMATIONS**

V. I. Popov

UDC 678.5.01:539.63

The stressed state of chemically active polymeric systems under the conditions of shear, elongation, and oscillating

deformations has been investigated. From the viewpoint of locally nonequilibrium thermodynamics

and statistical physics for systems with a complex internal structure, the moment characteristics of the locally

nonequilibrium transfer process and the related components of their stress tensor deviator have been established.

The influence of deformation conditions on the amount and character of the change in the stressed

state of chemically active polymeric systems has been analyzed.

Keywords: stresses, polymers, relaxation, mechanoactivation, shear, elongation, and oscillating regimes of deformation.

PAGE 171

**ELECTRODYNAMICS OF ADSORPTION PROCESSES ****IN CONDENSED MEDIA**

V. V. Leonov, M. Yu. Dolomatov, and T. A. Ismagilov

UDC 530.1:536.7:539.3

Electrodynamic approaches to describing adsorption processes on a solid surface in condensed physicochemical

systems are presented. Theoretical continuous consideration of the indicated processes showed that the

possibilities of direct electrometry of the properties of substances in a condensed state and of adsorbing

media can be increased considerably.

Keywords: condensed media, physicochemistry of adsorption, chemical potential, boundary-value problem of

electrodynamics, boundary conditions of electrometry.

PAGE 178

**
HEAT CONDUCTION AND HEAT TRANSFER IN TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES ****THERMOLOGGING PROBLEM WITH A GIVEN RADIAL ****OIL-VELOCITY PROFILE IN THE WELL SHAFT**

A. I. Filippov, O. V. Akhmetova, M. A. Zelenova,

and A. S. Rodionov

UDC 532.517.2

With the use of the asymptotic method the thermologging problem with a given radial oil-velocity profile is

presented in the form of a sequence of simpler problems containing different types of equations for corresponding

expansion coefficients, remainder term, and boundary-layer functions. Analytical expressions for the

zeroth and first expansion coefficients and boundary-layer functions taking into account the arbitrary radial

oil-velocity profile have been constructed. It has been shown that the derived asymptotic formula makes the

perturbation sources vanish in the averaged problem for the remainder term.

Keywords: temperature field, well, radial velocity profile, asymptotic method.

PAGE 183

**MODELING OF COOLING OF A STEEL-TEEMING LADLE**

A. V. Zabolotskii

UDC 536.248.1/519.688

A mathematical model of formation of temperature fields in linings of metallurgical equipment is proposed,

which is based on the finite-element method and specific features of heat transfer on elements of this equipment.

The model is used to study temperature fields in the lining of a steel-teeming ladle under various operating

conditions. The model is verified experimentally with the example of a steel-teeming ladle cooled after

the metal is treated; the experimental verification shows that calculated temperature values at check points

are in accord with experimental temperatures.

Keywords: temperature field, steel-teeming ladle, lining, heat transfer, mathematical model.

PAGE 205

**MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND INVESTIGATIONS ****OF THE PROCESSES OF HEAT CONDUCTION OF AMMONIUM**

**
PERCHLORATE WITH PHASE TRANSITIONS IN THERMAL ****DECOMPOSITION AND GASIFICATION**

A. V. Mikhailov, I. M. Lagun, and E. P. Polyakov

UDC 662.581:536.46

Transient heat-conduction processes occurring in the period of thermal decomposition and gasification of a

crystalline oxidant — ammonium perchlorate — have been investigated and analyzed on the basis of the developed

mathematical model.

Keywords: ammonium perchlorate, gasification, phase transition of the 2nd kind.

PAGE 211

**NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE FORMATION OF A TOXIC ****CLOUD ON OUTPOURING EJECTION OF LIQUEFIED**

**
CHLORINE TO THE ATMOSPHERE**

A. D. Galeev, E. V. Starovoitova, and S. I. Ponikarov

UDC 536.24,614.83

The results of numerical investigation of the influence of wind velocity and degree of atmospheric stability on

the process of toxic cloud formation on outpouring ejection of liquefied chlorine are presented. The computational

procedure is realized with the use of the hydrodynamic analysis package FLUENT. The proposed

model describes the distribution of two clouds: primary and secondary. The primary aerosol cloud is formed

as a result of instantaneous boiling up of a part of the liquid phase, and the secondary one, on evaporation

(boiling) of a spill.

Keywords: emergency ejection, liquefied chlorine, vaporization, gas propagation, numerical simulation.

PAGE 219

**
EVOLUTIONARY TRANSFORMATION OF COMMUNAL ****THERMAL-POWER ENGINEERING**

A. I. Nakorchevskii

UDC 536.2+662.997

A solution is given to the problem of heat supply to multi-storied residential and office buildings with the use

of solar insolation as the principal energy source making it possible to do away with the district heating of

towns and settlements and to reduce expenditure of energy on heating and hot water supply by more than

85%.

Keywords: accumulator, buffer, house, hot water supply, ground, collector, heating, radiation, Sun, heat transfer,

heat pump, ecology, economics.

PAGE 229

**MISCELLANEA ****STRIPLINE-TYPE PHOTODETECTOR BASED ****ON THE NARROW-GAP TERNARY COMPOUND**

**
Hg1−xCdxTe FOR THE FAR IR REGION**

Ya. I. Lepikh, I. A. Ivanchenko, and L. M. Budiyanskaya

UDC 621.383.4/5

Consideration has been given to the problem of creation of an uncooled semiconductor photodetector sensitive

in the far infrared region. The possibility of creating an uncooled semiconductor photodetector with a

strip-waveguide structure on the basis of the narrow-gap ternary compound Hg1−xCdxTe that takes advantage

of the wave properties of light to record radiation in the far infrared region has been substantiated.

Keywords: uncooled semiconductor photodetector, stripline, waveguide.

PAGE 242

**FEATURES OF THE TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES ****OF A FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTOR ****IN A CURRENT-LIMITING MODE**

O. A. Abdulkhaev, D. M. Yodgorova, A. V. Karimov,

B. M. Kamanov, and A. A. Turaev

UDC 621.315.592.2

A study has been made of the physical processes in a field-effect transistor when its thermosensitive parameters,

such as the direct voltage of the gate p–n junction and the cutoff voltage of the channel, are acted upon

by temperature. It has been established experimentally that one can control the temperature-sensitivity coefficient

of a diode-connected field-effect transistor.

Keywords: field-effect transistor, temperature, dropping voltage, current limiting.

PAGE 248

DISCUSSION

Comments on the Paper "A Study of Induced Magnetic Field with Chemically Reacting and Radiating

Fluid past a Vertical Permeable Plate" by S. Ahmed – Bhupendra Kumar Sharma

PAGE 255