#### Volume 93, №4

**ON REALIZATION OF IDEAL MULTIFLOW HEAT EXCHANGE**

It is shown that the conditions of ideal heat exchange, according to which at the given heat load and overall heat transfer
coeffi cient the entropy production in the system attains its lower boundary, can be realized in a set of countercurrent
heat exchangers on coordinated selection of temperatures and heat capacities of fl ows. The parameters of fl ows and the
distribution of heat transfer coeffi cients and heat loads between two-fl ow heat exchangers for the Newtonian kinetics
have been determined. The value of the minimal dissipation and the profi le of the distribution of the overall heat
transfer coeffi cient for the case where the temperature profi le of one of the fl ows is fi xed have been obtained.

**Author:**
A. M. Tsirlin

**Keywords:**
ideal heat exchange, heat transfer coeffi cient, entropy, heat loads, Newtonian kinetics

**Page:**
757

**ON THE THERMAL REGIME OF THE PROTECTIVE GRANULAR BED OF A GAS DISTRIBUTOR **

A numerical solution of a two-temperature problem on the thermal state of an aerated granular bed, constituting the
thermal protection of the gas distributor of a high-temperature bubbling bed, is carried out. An equation is obtained
for the coeffi cient of the effi ciency of cooling the gas distributor. It is shown that on the side of the bubbling bed the
surface temperature of the granular bed is independent of its thermal conductivity and thickness

**Author:**
Yu. S. Teplitskii, E. A. Pitsukha, and A. R. Roslik

**Keywords:**
bubbling bed, thermal protection, granular bed, gas distributor, cooling effi ciency

**Page:**
766

**HEAT AND MOISTURE TRANSFER IN A STATIONARY DISPERSED LAYER OF VEGETABLE MATERIALS WITH COMBINED POWER INPUT**

The results of modeling and investigating heat and moisture transfer in a stationary dispersed layer of vegetable
materials with convective and cyclic SHF-convective power input are presented. The mathematical model is
made up of equations for conservation of gas-phase mass, fi ltration, and heat and moisture transfer in phases
accounting for internal resistance to transfer of heat and moisture in particles in calculating the processes of heat
and mass transfer and on the basis of deepening the evaporation zone. The conformity of the calculated results
with the experimental data using the example of drying sliced potato particles and the possibility of stepping up the
process of dehydration is shown.

**Author:**
P. V. Akulich and D. S. Slizhuk

**Keywords:**
heat and moisture transfer in a stationary layer, drying of vegetable materials, SHF-convective drying

**Page:**
773

**FORMATION OF CRACK ON HYDRAULIC FRACTURING OF BED IN A MEDIUM WITH DOUBLE POROSITY**

A study is made of a two-dimensional bound problem on slow motions of a liquid in a hydraulic fracturing crack
and on deformations and fi ltration caused by these motions in a poroelastic medium with double porosity involving
two components — the porosity proper and jointing. The motions are induced by the pumping of a liquid into a well.
The motion inside the crack is described by hydrodynamics equations in hydrostatic approximation. Some ordered
sequence of interdependent geomechanical processes occurring on hydraulic fracturing is established in conformity
with the principle of incomplete connection. In the main space surrounding the crack, the liquid moves in the porous
component of the two-phase medium. In the boundary layer the motion dominates in the jointy component. In
distinction to the classical problem with double porosity, the indicated problem is solved rigorously with account
for elastic deformations of the skeleton. The motion regimes in the main volume and in the boundary layer differ
signifi cantly due to the permeability of the medium

**Author:**
A. V. Karakin

**Keywords:**
jointing, porosity, poroelasticity, double porosity, hydraulic fracturing crack

**Page:**
781

**TURBULENT DRIFT OF FINELY DISPERSED PARTICLES IN EMULSIONS AND SUSPENSIONS IN PRESSURE HYDROCYCLONES**

Consideration has been given to a mathematical model of turbulent drift of fi nely dispersed particles in the liquid
phase of a hydrocyclone. With the two-layer model of a turbulent boundary layer and the coeffi cient of turbulent
diffusion of the particles, the authors have obtained an expression for calculating the coeffi cient of the rate of
particle transport from the fl ow core to the boundary of a viscous sublayer on the apparatus wall. On the basis of
the expression for shear stress on the wall, which was written with a momentum-transfer coeffi cient, an expression
has been obtained for calculating the average circular velocity in the hydrocyclone. The basic parameter of these
expressions is the dynamic velocity, which is determined from the average rate of energy dissipation. Results of
calculations of the coeffi cient of transport of particles, the average circular velocity, and the effi ciency of separation
of particles of diameter 6 μm (sand particles in oil) have been presented; a comparison of the results with experimental
data has been made.

**Author:**
A. G. Laptev, M. M. Basharov, and E. A. Lapteva

**Keywords:**
hydrocyclone, turbulent diffusion, transfer coeffi cients, separation effi ciency

**Page:**
790

**APPLICATION OF ELECTROSTATIC EFFECT FOR CLEANSING FINELY DIVIDED AEROSOL FROM AIR**

The possibility of intensifying the processes in gas-dispersed systems with coagulated particles of different dimensions
and the effi ciency of air purifi cation depend on the characteristics of the fi eld created by electrodepositing plants.
This work was carried out with a view of optimizing the parameters of electrodepositing systems to increase the rate
of aerosol cloud deposition in an air medium. The theoretical and experimental studies are oriented to improving the
methods of removing harmful aerosol formations in the air space by exposure to external electrostatic fi elds. This
paper describes experimental investigation of coagulation and deposition of aerosol particles by inducing external
fi elds in a closed volume with account for different technical parameters of devices for trapping different kinds of
fi nely divided particles. To obtain the dispersed and concentration characteristics of aerosol, use is made of the
method of searching for the solution in the form of a multiparameter function of the size distribution of particles
realized as part of a laser measuring complex.

**Author:**
M. Yu. Stepkina, O. B. Kudryashova, A. A. Antonnikova, and A. A. Zhirnov

**Keywords:**
finely divided aerosol, drift velocity, deposition, coagulation, critical voltage of corona discharge, multiparameter distribution function

**Page:**
796

**THERMAL STABILITY AND PHASE COMPOSITION OF STRATIFYING POLYMER SOLUTIONS IN SMALL-VOLUME DROPLETS**

Within the framework of the thermodynamic approach the characteristic features of the phase equilibria and
of thermal stability of liquid polymer solutions in small-volume systems are considered. Using as an example a
stratifying solution of oligomer fractions of polybutadiene and polystyrene in coarsely disperse droplets of different
volumes with core–shell confi guration, the regions of thermal stability of various heterogeneous states of the core–
shell structure that differ by the compositions of core phases and of homogeneous state are obtained . It is shown that
these regions of temperatures depend substantially on the droplet volume, with the compositions of the coexisting
phases in different states of the core–shell structure being different. A decrease in the droplet volume is accompanied
by a substantial change of the mutual solubilities of components, as well as by a decrease of the upper critical
temperature of solubility and by the expansion of the temperature region, in which solutions of any composition up
to the equimolar one are dynamically stable.

**Author:**
A. V. Shishulin and V. B. Fedoseev

**Keywords:**
disperse systems, dimensional effect, solutions of polymers, phase transformations, solution stratifi cation, metastable states

**Page:**
802

**MODELING IMPREGNATION OF POROUS MATERIALS IN A FORCE FIELD WITH ACCOUNT OF THE DIFFUSION OF TRAPPED GASES**

It has been shown that a nonuniform electric fi eld can have a signifi cant effect on the kinetics of diffusion capillary
imbibition of liquids into thin dead-end capillaries that are a model of pore strictures. The results of calculations are
in satisfactory agreement with experimental data

**Author:**
I. N. Karpovich

**Keywords:**
cylindrical dead-end capillary, liquid column, gas diffusion, nonuniform electric fi eld, mass transfer, porous body

**Page:**
810

**STUDY OF THE MOISTURE SORPTION ISOTHERMS AND ISOSTERIC HEAT OF SORPTION OF THE MEDICINAL PLANT Launeae Nudicaulis FROM ALGERIAN SAHARA**

The aim of this work is to determine the sorption isotherms of Launeae nudicaulis, a medicinal plant growing in south-west of Algeria. The equilibrium moisture content was measured, using the static gravimetric method, with the water activity from 6.3 to 89.8% at 30 and 40^{o}
C. It was shown that at higher water activities the moisture content
increases sharply with the temperature, resulting in crossing of the isotherm curves. Four models were applied for
analyzing experimental data (namely, the Peleg, GAB, Henderson–Thompson, and the BET modifi ed ones). The
desorption and adsorption data showed the best correlation with the Peleg model. The isosteric sorption heat of
water was determined from the equilibrium data at different temperatures. This heat was shown to decrease as the
moisture content increases and to be a polynomial function of the moisture content.

**Author:**
A. Fedol, A. Cheriti, and M. R. Ouahranib

**Keywords:**
Launeae nudicaulis, equilibrium moisture content, modeling of sorption isotherm, isosteric heat of sorption

**Page:**
816

**MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF THE SWIRLING FLOW OF A THERMOVISCOUS, PSEUDOPLASTIC SISCO FLUID IN A CYLINDRICAL CHANNEL**

The swirling fl ow of a thermoviscous, pseudoplastic Sisco fl uid in a cylindrical channel was investigated. It was
established that, in the case of irrotational fl ow of a pseudoplastic fl uid in such a channel, the effective viscosity
of the fl uid in the neighborhood of the channel axis is substantially increased. A swirling of this fl ow leads to an
increase in the rate of shear deformation of the fl uid in the axial region of the fl ow and to a decrease in its effective
viscosity. As the swirling of the fl ow in the channel increases, the fl uid near the channel walls and the fl uid at the
boundary of the recirculation zone are subjected to a dissipative heating leading to a decrease in their effective
viscosity. The intensity heating of the fl uid in the channel increases with increase in the rate of swirling (the Rossby
number) of its fl ow.

**Author:**
O. V. Matvienko and A. E. Aseeva

**Keywords:**
rheology, non-Newtonian fl uid, thermoviscous fl uid, pseudoplastic Sisco fl uid, heat exchange, swirling fl ow, viscous dissipation, computational hydrodynamics

**Page:**
827

**EXCLUDED VOLUME IN MICRORHEOLOGICAL MODELS OF STRUCTURED SUSPENSIONS**

An exact solution of rheology equations, which is possible for a layered two-phase material simplest of structure,
is used as a tool for testing concepts and rheological equations obtained on the basis of the existing structural
models of disperse systems and for ranking the models by the extent to which the excluded-volume effect is taken
account of in them. Consideration has been given to the features of fl ow of layered systems in which the dispersed
phase is a continuous impermeable medium, an elastic material, and a coagulation structure permeable to a
dispersion medium. In the context of the model of fl ow of layered systems, the authors interpret the fl ow regime
observed experimentally, the so-called "stress plateau," which is characteristic of liquid crystalline structures and
polymer melts

**Author:**
E. E. Bibik, E. V. Sivtsov, and V. D. Rodinova

**Keywords:**
rheology, viscosity, free volume, shear, elastoplasticity

**Page:**
839

**ON THE REFRACTIVE INDEX OF A GAS UNDER HIGH-THERMAL-NONEQUILIBRIUM CONDITIONS**

An analysis has been made of the infl uence of the excitation of internal degrees of freedom of molecules on the
refractive index (n – 1) under the conditions of high thermal nonequilibrium using the problem on relaxation of
molecular nitrogen and oxygen behind the front of a strong shock wave as an example. It has been shown that the
processes of vibrational relaxation and the processes of electronic translational relaxation and dissociation alike
may exert a substantial infl uence on the refractive index of the gas. The change in the refractive index has been
shown to occur primarily because of the change in the gas density in the course of these processes. Also, it has been
found that a slight but detectable infl uence (about 1–2% for n – 1) on the refractive index is exerted by the change in
the polarizability of the gas as a result of the change in vibrational temperatures of the mixture′s molecules and due
to the excitation of electronic states and the dissociation of the starting components

**Author:**
B. I. Lukhovitskii, A. S. Sharipov, I. V. Arsent′ev, V. V. Kuzmitskii, and O. G. Penyazkov

**Keywords:**
thermal nonequilibrium, molecular vibrations, electronically excited states, polarizability, refractive index, Gladstone–Dale constant, optical diagnostics of fl ows, oxygen, nitrogen

**Page:**
850

**MODELING THE MOTION OF SUPERCAVITATING STRIKERS IN A GROUP GUN-START**

The investigation is devoted to an experimental and theoretical research into the high-velocity motion of a group of
supercavitating kinetic strikers in water. An experimental launching technique has been developed, and investigations
have been conducted into the high-velocity motion of a group of supercavitating strikers on a hydroballistic testing
facility, and a calculation procedure has been developed for modeling possible deviations of the strikers′ motion in
water in a group start. Experimental data have been obtained on the motion of one and two supercavitating strikers
on the initial portion of the path at velocities of the order of 1200 m/s, which serve as initial conditions for identifying
the strikers′ deviation from the target at a distance of up to 100 m.

**Author:**
A. N. Ishchenko, S. A. Afanas′eva, S. S. Bondarchuk, V. V. Burkin, A. S. D′yachkovskii, M. V. Khabibullin, and A. V. Chupashev

**Keywords:**
water, supercavitating kinetic striker, cavitator, group launching, mathematical modeling, hydroballistic path

**Page:**
858

**SEPARATING LOSS IN AXIAL-FLOW-TURBINE CASCADES**

The use of a system of basic hydrogasdynamic equations, which was written for the portion of contraction of the fl ow
at entry into a cascade of axial-fl ow turbine profi les at large angles of reattachment to the walls of a blade passage,
has enabled the authors to obtain analytical dependences (characteristics) of the loss on the angles of entry of the
fl ow into the cascade. The obtained procedure of calculating the loss permits taking account of the radius of rounding
of the profi les at entry, on which the region of insensitivity to the angle of attack is dependent, and also determining
relevant fl ow-entry angles limiting the insensitivity region. The authors have proposed variants of the procedure
for both an incompressible-fl uid model and a compressible gas, where use is made of the gasdynamic functions of
the reduced velocity. The calculated characteristics of the turbine cascades are in good agreement with the existing
experimental data in a wide range of angles of attack and radii of rounding of the profi les′ leading edges. The
infl uence of the fl ow compressibility on the loss has been shown. To test the procedure under the conditions of pulsed
fl ow through the turbine where the angles of attack are particularly large, the authors carried out investigations
whose results are also in good agreement with the results of corresponding calculations.

**Author:**
Yu. A. Grishin and V. N. Bakulin

**Keywords:**
turbine, angle of attack, separating loss, system of equations, characteristics, gasdynamic functions

**Page:**
868

**ON CALCULATION OF FLOWS OF HETEROGENEOUS MEDIA IN A BODY-FORCE FIELD**

With the generalized equilibrium model of a gas-liquid mixture that was proposed by the authors earlier, the spreading
of a liquid column in the presence of gravity forces is calculated using the nodal method of characteristics, which is
generalized to a multidimensional case.

**Author:**
V. S. Surov

**Keywords:**
gravity, hyperbolic model of a medium, multidimensional nodal method of characteristics

**Page:**
878

**INFLUENCE OF THE WATER FEED TO THE BODY OF A ROCKET-ENGINE EXHAUST JET DURING ITS FLOW INTO A SUBMERGED SPACE**

Elements of a homogeneous algorithm for numerical simulation of the thermogasdynamic parameters of a viscous
two-phase nonequilibrium chemically reactive nonisobaric rocket-engine exhaust jet have been formulated within
the framework of a two-velocity and two-temperature continuum model on the basis of "viscous-layer" and "narrowchannel" equations. By numerical calculation, the authors has established the basic regularities of the infl uence of
the water feed, the mixing of the jet with air, and the afterburning of the high-temperature rocket-engine jet in the air
oxygen on the fl ow structure and thermogasdynamic and thermophysical parameters of the jet

**Author:**
V. I. Timoshenko

**Keywords:**
viscous two-phase jet, combustion products, water injection, marching methods of solution

**Page:**
885

**FEATURES OF HIGH-VELOCITY PULSATING LIQUID JETS**

Processes proceeding in a pulsed liquid-jet generator were investigated in the acoustic and gasdynamic approximations.
In the acoustic approximation, the problem on the one-dimensional movement of the liquid in the generator with no
movement of its piston and no liquid outfl ow from it was considered. In the gasdynamic approximation, the problems
on one-dimensional and axisymmetric liquid fl ows in the generator were solved numerically with regard for the
movement of the generator piston, the liquid outfl ow from the generator, and the cavitation of the liquid in it. A onedimensional liquid fl ow in the generator was calculated using the potential method, a scheme with introduction of
artifi cial viscosity, the Godunov method, and modifi cations of this method. Results of calculations of the movement
of the liquid in the generator by different models were compared, and corresponding conclusions have been made.

**Author:**
A. N. Semko and O. V. Kazak

**Keywords:**
pulsed liquid-jet generator, liquid compressibility, wave process, cavitation, numerical simulation, velocity pulsations, liquid outfl ow, liquid disks

**Page:**
893

**SPHERICAL SHOCK GENERATED BY A MOVING PISTON IN A NONIDEAL GAS UNDER GRAVITATION FIELD WITH MONOCHROMATIC RADIATION AND MAGNETIC FIELD**

Similarity solutions for the propagation of a spherical shock wave generated by a moving piston in a nonideal
gas under the infl uence of a gravitational fi eld and azimuthal magnetic fi eld with monochromatic radiation
are obtained. The gravitational fi eld is due to a central mass at the origin, i.e., the Roche model is valid.
The gravitational effect of the gas itself is neglected in comparison with the attraction of the central mass at
the origin. We considered that the radiation fl ux moves through an electrically conducting nonideal gas with
constant intensity and energy is absorbed only behind the shock which moves in the direction opposite to the
radiation fl ux. The results are discussed and compared with ones for a perfect gas, as well as for the cases of the
infl uence of the gravitational fi eld and of the absence of this fi eld. The effect of the variations of the Alfven–Mach
number, gravitational parameter, adiabatic exponent, and of the parameter of gas nonidealness are discussed
in details.

**Author:**
G. Nath

**Keywords:**
shock wave, monochromatic radiation, gravitational fi eld, magnetic fi eld, nonideal gas, interstellar medium

**Page:**
911

**UNIQUENESS OF A SOLUTION TO PROBLEMS OF IDENTIFICATION OF MATHEMATICAL HEAT-TRANSFER MODELS WITH LUMPED PARAMETERS**

An analysis has been made of the problem of identifi cation of mathematical heat-transfer models with lumped
parameters that have a nonunique solution. The authors have investigated the possibility of restoring conditionally
the uniqueness of a solution to such a problem with supplementary conditions for the selection of solutions in the
form of linearly independent time functions of temperature that can be obtained in one experiment with relevant
designing, Consideration has been given to the applicability of iteration-regularization methods with a vector
regularization parameter to identifying a full set of functions of a thermal-state matrix of mathematical models
with lumped parameters. On the basis of computational experiments, the capabilities of a variational principle of
selection of solutions for conditionally correct identifi cation problems have been demonstrated.

**Author:**
A. G. Vikulov and A. V. Nenarokomov

**Keywords:**
mathematical models, inverse problems, identifi cation, uniqueness and stability of a solution, regularization, variational method, heat transfer

**Page:**
924

**COMBINED METHOD OF SEPARATION OF VARIABLES. 1. CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE KNOWN APPROACH**

For the purpose of development of a new high-accuracy method of separation of variables, allowing one to effectively
use the method of differential transformations in combination with the method of weighted residuals, by the example
of the problems on the nonstationary heat conduction of an unbounded plate, an unbounded cylinder, and a sphere
with the fi rst-kind boundary conditions, a critical analysis of the known solution technique based on the combined
use of the Fourier method of separation of variables, the method of differential transformations, and the method
of weighted residuals has been performed. It is shown that the computational scheme realized with the indicated
technique has a very low approximation accuracy, especially in the case where it is used for bodies of cylindrical and
spherical symmetry. The main reasons for the low accuracy of the solutions obtained by this scheme were revealed.

**Author:**
V. A. Kot

**Keywords:**
heat conduction equation, boundary-value problem, method of separation of variables, weighted residual method, eigenvalues, eigenfunctions, method of differential transformations

**Page:**
944

**EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF HEAT TRANSFER OF PLANE HEAT-REMOVING SURFACES WITH PLATE FINNING**

Heat transfer of promising heat-removing surfaces with plate-slit fi nning intended for use in the case of air cooling of
heat loaded radio- and microelectronic facilities in forced convection regime has been investigated experimentally.
The infl uence of the depth of slitting fi ns and of the turning angle of their slit parts relative to the cooling fl ow
direction on the intensity of heat transfer of the fi nned surface is shown. It has been established that the greatest
intensifying effect is observed at the relative depth of the slitting of fi ns equal to 0.6, which leads to an increase in the
intensity of heat release by 20–25%. The turning of the slit parts of the fi ns leads to heat transfer growth by 50–60%
compared with traditional plate-fi nned surfaces. Improved dimensionless equations are suggested for calculating
average heat transfer of surfaces with plate-slit fi nning under the conditions of forced convection in the range of the
Reynolds number values from 2000 to 10,000. The results of investigation can be used in designing new systems of
cooling radio- and microelectronic facilities.

**Author:**
A. V. Baranyuk, V. A. Rogachev, Yu. V. Zhukova, A. M. Terekh, and A. I. Rudenko

**Keywords:**
radiator, heat-removing surface, fi nning, convective heat transfer, experiment

**Page:**
962

**STRESSES IN A LUMBER PILE IN THE PROCESS OF DRYING IN A CONVECTIVE DRIER**

Numerical calculation of the three-dimensional stress–strain state of a lumber pile in the process of drying in a
convective drier is presented. The solution is obtained with the aid of the program complex ANSYS allowing one to
develop and visualize three-dimensional geometric constructions. The results of the work can be used for carrying
out computational experiments on drying materials in chambers and in developing the regimes of drying lumber
piles by analyzing their stress–strain state and for designing drying facilities

**Author:**
V. A. Sychevskii

**Keywords:**
convective drier, lumber pile, numerical calculation, computational experiment

**Page:**
973

**ULTRASONIC INTENSIFICATION OF LOW-TEMPERATURE PLASMA SYNTHESIS OF CERAMIC-LIKE COATINGS OF VALVE METALS**

The authors have presented a method of ultrasonic intensifi cation of anode–cathode interactions during the
formation, in water–alkali electrolytes, of ceramic-like coatings on the surface of valve metals in the process of lowtemperature plasma synthesis. An algorithm of directional infl uence of high-energy fi elds on the distinctive features
and rate of chemical reactions at the electrolyte–metal–coating interface through changing the solution′s state by
ultrasonic pulses in the process of anodic microarc oxidation has been developed. The authors have elucidated the
mechanism and have determined the character and level of effect of the proposed intensifi cation on the dynamics of
growth of a coating under low-temperature-plasma conditions of a liquid medium. It has been shown that mechanical
(ultrasonic) activation of the electrolyte is responsible for the intensifi cation of the process of transfer of charge
carriers, which are primarily electrolyte ions. Procedures and equipment have been described using which the values
of an ultrasonic signal formed under various conditions were recorded. The nature of more intense buildup in the
thickness of a ceramic-like coating with reduced energy expenditure to form it has been elucidated. This is explained
by the appearance in the electrolyte, during its ultrasonic activation, of the great number of high-frequency damped
oscillations of irregular waveform with a high amplitude as far as the current is concerned (5 A or higher), which is
attributable to the occurrence of a synergetic effect

**Author:**
N. M. Chigrinova and V. E. Chigrinov

**Keywords:**
ultrasonic intensifi cation, high-frequency damped oscillations of irregular waveform, oscillograms, sweep

**Page:**
980

**RECYCLING OF ORGANIC WASTE IN A PLASMA REACTOR**

Thermodynamic calculations and experiments on plasma gasifi cation of wood waste have been conducted. On the
basis of a verifi ed TERRA universal thermodynamic-calculation program, the authors have conducted an experiment
on plasma recycling of agricultural waste. No detrimental impurities were found in the products of plasma recycling

**Author:**
V. E. Messerle A. L. Mossé, A. B. Ustimenko, N. A. Slavinskay and Zh. Zh. Sitdikov

**Keywords:**
organic waste, agricultural waste, plasma treatment, plasma reactor

**Page:**
987

**ESTIMATION OF THE PARAMETERS OF COMBUSTION OF THE SURFACE OF NATURAL COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS BY THE THERMOGRAPHY METHOD**

The results of an experimental investigation into the parameters of combustion of peat and wood using thermography
have been presented. The mechanism of propagation of smoldering over the peat surface has been identifi ed. The
temperature fi eld on the surface of peat during its combustion under the infl uence of a local heat source has been
obtained, and the velocity of propagation of the smoldering front has been estimated. Using the IR-diagnostics
method, temperature distributions have been obtained over the surface of wood specimens exposed to heat action
under conditions of a ground fi re with and without fi re-retardant treatment.

**Author:**
M. V. Agafontsev and D. P. Kasymov

**Keywords:**
thermography, wood, fi re retardant, combustion, peat

**Page:**
998

**IGNITION OF COAL MICROPARTICLES IN AN AIR ATMOSPHERE AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE INFLAMMATION OF METHANE**

The spontaneous combustion of the coal microparticles of fractions 1–20 μm and 20–32 μm in an air atmosphere
and the infl ammation of the coal microparticles of fraction 20–32 μm in a methane–air mixture at temperatures
of 700–1100 K were investigated with the use of a rapid compression machine. A contactless measurement of
the temperature of the coal particles ignited spontaneously in a gas has shown that this temperature can reach
2500 ± 200 K and substantially exceeds the temperature of the gas at the end of its compression stroke. It was established that the coal microparticles burning in a stoichiometric methane–air mixture are local hotbeds of fi re in
this mixture at a temperature as high as 1400 K and that the gas is ignited in the neighborhood of these hotbeds. The
limiting temperatures of ignition of the coal microparticles in an air atmosphere free of methane and in a methane–
air mixture were determined. The measured times of delay in the ignition of the methane by the coal microparticles
in a hybrid methane–air mixture agree with the delay times of ignition of a pure methane–air mixture under the same
conditions to within the experimental error.

**Author:**
V. V. Leshchevich, O. G. Penyazkov, and S. Yu. Shimchenk

**Keywords:**
ignition, hybrid mixture, methane, coal microparticles, rapid compression machine

**Page:**
1004

**TENSILE STRENGTH OF NANOFIBROUS CONCRETE**

Results of testing nanofi brous-concrete test beams for axial tensile strength, for cleavage tensile strength, and for
compressive strength have been given. Concrete matrices covering a broad spectrum of compressive-strength classes
of concretes of construction grade were used as a basis. A macrolevel fi ber (steel or polymeric) or a nanolevel fi ber
(carbon nanotubes) was made part of a concrete matrix. An increase of 80% in the axial tensile strength and of
145% in the cleavage tensile strength was recorded in the nanofi brous-concrete test pieces. Diagrams of axial tensile
straining of the test pieces have been obtained.

**Author:**
E. A. Sadovskaya, S. N. Leonovich S. A. Zhdanok, and E. N. Polonina

**Keywords:**
nanostructured carbon, nanotubes, fi ber, nanofi brous concrete, axial tensile, cleavage, and compressive strength

**Page:**
1015

**HIGH-EFFICIENCY SELECTIVE SOLAR ABSORBER FROM NANOSTRUCTURED CARBONIZED PLANT RAW MATERIAL**

The results of investigation into the absorptivity of carbonized rice-husk plant material with regard to solar radiation have been given. It has been shown that an absorber based on leached carbonized rice husk has higher solar absorptivity than an absorber based on carbonized apricot pits with an Apricus coating and an absorber based on a commercial Chinese-made coating. The results of investigation into the physical and chemical properties of carbonized rice husk have been presented. It has been shown that the carbon content in the initial unleached rice husk powder is 82.3%, and after leaching, the percentage of carbon rises up to 93.3%. Based on the results of a BET (Brunauer–Emmet–Teller) analysis, it has been established that leached rice husk has a more developed specifi c surface (447–641 m2 /g) and a higher specifi c volume of pores (0.27–0.392 cm^{2}
/g) than unleached rice husk (127–160 m^{2}
/g and 0.054–0.127 cm^{2}
/g respectively). The advantage of the considered plant-based carbon materials
compared to the exiting coatings lies in their porous structure. Cavities are known to be a model of a blackbody,
which is a decisive factor in using a material as an absorber, and, simultaneously, a porous structure has a heatinsulating property.

**Author:**
N. G. Prikhod′ko, G. T. Smagulova, M. Nazhipkyzy, N. B. Rakhymzhan, T. S. Temirgalieva, B. T. LesbaevA. A. Zakhidov, and Z. A. Mansurov

**Keywords:**
carbonized rice husk, solar absorber, carbon maternal, solar collector, effi ciency of absorption of solar energy

**Page:**
1020

**ICE FORMATION AND FILM FLOW OF WATER ON VERTICAL AND INCLINED PACKINGS**

This paper presents the results of studies on the formation of ice on vertical and inclined packings manufactured from a cord of diameters 2 and 5 mm or a wire. Water was sprayed by a rotating disk onto the walls of a pipe of diameter 200 mm where it was cooled and fell on the cord packings without the action of special distributing devices. Periodic protrusions and troughs appeared on the packings just as in the case of formation of icicles. The presence of the cord made it possible to obtain long stalactites as opposed to icicles that grow due to the freezing of their tips and cease to grow at large wetting densities. At the lower parts of the packings tilted at angles of 20–25^{o}
, a toothed
ice was formed without separation of drops and icicles. The thicknesses of water fi lms and heat transfer coeffi cients
were calculated for air fl ow across the packings. Good agreement of the results of calculations with corresponding
experimental data has been obtained.

**Author:**
I. I. Pukhovoi

**Keywords:**
cord packings, water fi lms, heat transfer, ice formation, ice accumulation, ventilation, heat pumps.

**Page:**
1030

**ACTIVATION ENERGY OF THE CONDUCTANCE OF p–n-4H-SiC Al STRUCTURES DOPED WITH ALUMINUM BY THE METHOD OF LOW-TEMPERATURE DIFFUSION**

A study has been made of the activation energy of the conductance of a p–n-4H-SiC Al structure created through
the doping of silicon carbide with aluminum. The doping was implemented by a novel method of low-temperature
diffusion, in which the diffusion of aluminum in silicon carbide is stimulated by a carbon- and silicon-vacancy fl ux
produced by the oxidation of the silicon surface.

**Author:**
Kh. N. Zhuraev, A. Yusupov, A. G. Gulyamov, M. U. Khazhiev, D. Sh. Saidov, and N. B. Adilov

**Keywords:**
4H-SiC, p–n junction, low-temperature diffusion, activation energy.

**Page:**
1036