Volume 92, №3


METHODS OF EMERGENCY HEAT REMOVAL FROM POOLS AND STORAGES OF SPENT FUEL OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
In the paper, consideration is given to possible methods of heat removal from water pools and storages of spent nuclear fuel of atomic power plants, which can be employed in an emergency due to failure of the regular cooling system of the pool. The authors present results of investigation of two passive methods of emergency cooling of spentfuel water pools: the fi rst method is to use emergency accumulator reservoirs with a cooling-water supply, and the second, to use boiling channels whose action is based on the effect of creating driving head in the emergency system of natural circulation of the cooling pond of the coolant.
Author:  Yu. E. Karyakin, N. N. Peich, A. A. Pletnev, and E. D. Fedorovich
Keywords:  spent nuclear fuel, pool, nuclear fuel storage, emergency removal of heat, accumulator reservoir, boiling channels
Page:  553

OPTIMIZATION OF A HYBRID POWER PLANT ON THE BASIS OF THE MODELING OF THERMAL PROCESSES IN IT
Consideration has been given to the problem of optimization of the structure and parameters of an autonomous hybrid power plant operating from renewable energy sources (sun and wind) and methanol fuel cells using mathematical models of thermal processes in it. Examples of practical application of the developed models have been provided. Results of simulation experiments on development of the indicated power plant have been given
Author:  A. S. Grigor′ev, V. V. Skorlygin, S. A. Grigor′ev, D. A. Mel′nik, and O. G. Losev
Keywords:  hybrid system, off-network power supply, electrochemical energy, methanol fuel cell, renewable energy sources
Page:  562

THE POSSIBILITY OF CONVERTING ENERGY IN SPACE WITH THE AID OF A CHAIN HEAT MACHINE OPERATING ON METHANE AND NITROGEN
An analysis has been made of the useful mechanical work done in space with the aid of a heat machine, in which the working body consists of liquids with a superlow boiling temperature (methane and nitrogen). The use of nitrogen and methane is facilitated by the low temperature of the cosmic background radiation making it possible to cool nitrogen and methane to very low temperatures. The investigation is carried out on the basis of modeling the chain heat machine consisting of two units. The setting of the stationary regime of machine operation takes several hours. The scattering of energy into the outer space requires a condenser of large area.
Author:  K. O. Sabdenov, M. Erzada, and A. T. Suleimenov
Keywords:  superlow boiling temperature, power conversion, chain heat machine.
Page:  574

RAISING THE EFFICIENCY OF HEAT-EXCHANGE TUBES OF POWER INSTALLATIONS
he authors show prospects for using upgraded forms of discrete roughness that will make it possible to accomplish savings in electric energy for pumping the heat-transfer agent and in structural materials while creating heatengineering and heat-power equipment due to the employment of passive methods to enhance heat transfer.
Author:  V. V. Olimpiev, B. G. Mirzoev, I. A. Popov,
Keywords:  heat-power installation, enhancement of heat transfer, discrete roughness, heat-exchange tube
Page:  585

FEATURES OF GRAVITATIONAL FLOW OF HEATED AIR IN AN EXHAUST SHAFT ABOVE A MULTIROW FINNED BANK
The authors have carried out investigations into the introduction of hot-air heating systems in buildings and structures, and also the applicability of mixed convection in calorifers of recirculating air heaters. The heat transfer of two- and four-row staggered air-heater banks consisting of bimetallic fi nned tubes in mixed convection has been studied. Experimental investigations into the characteristics of a gravitational fl ow of heated air in an exhaust shaft above a heat-exchange bank in a mixed-convection regime have been presented. An increase of 1.5–3 times in the heat transfer in the mixed-convection regime compared to the heat transfer under conditions of free convection of the air has been established. The dynamics of motion of a geyser fl ow of heated air in the exhaust shaft above the heatexchange bank under gravity has been described. A decline of 20–50% in the heat transfer of staggered two- and four-row banks because of the presence of geyser air fl ows has been established. A method to diminish the adverse impact of geyser air fl ows on the heat transfer of the bank has been proposed.
Author:  A. B. Sukhotskii and G. S. Marshalova
Keywords:  air heating, gravitational movement of air, bimetallic fi nned tube, exhaust shaft, mixed convection, heattransfer coeffi cient, Nusselt number, Grashof number, geyser air fl ow
Page:  596

THERMOLYSIS OF POLYMERIC COMPOSITE MATERIALS
The author has substantiated the use of the steam-thermolysis method for thermal utilization of waste polymeric composite materials to obtain valuable components in the form of recyclable fi bers. On the basis of the performed investigations, it has been established that during the steam thermolysis of waste composite materials, the processes of formation of persistent organic pollutants are suppressed.
Author:  G. I. Zhuravskii
Keywords:  polymeric composite material, recycling, steam thermolysis, pyrolysis, carbon fi ber, carbon fi ber reinforced plastic, ecology
Page:  603

NONSTATIONARY HEAT CONDUCTION IN A CURVILINEAR PLATE WITH ACCOUNT OF SPATIAL NONLOCALITY
At the present time, an important stage in the creation and use of new structurally sensitive materials is the construction of mathematical models allowing one to describe the behavior of these materials in a wide range of variation of external effects. In this work, a model of heat conduction in structurally sensitive materials is suggested that accounts for the nonlocality of the medium over the space and the curvature of the plate. With the use of the integrointerpolation method, a difference scheme is constructed and a numerical solution of the problem of highly intense surface heating is found. The infl uence of the nonlocality and plate curvature parameters on temperature distribution has been investigated.
Author:  G. N. Kuvyrkin, I. Yu. Savel′eva, and D. A. Kuvshinnikova
Keywords:  nonlocality, heat conduction equation, curvilinear plate, difference scheme.
Page:  608

STOCHASTIC MODEL OF HEAT CONDUCTION WITH HEAT SOURCES OR SINKS
A one-dimensional stochastic model of heat conduction has been developed for the case of the presence of heat sources or sinks in the region of transfer. Boundary-value problems for average temperature and temperature fi eld dispersion in the region of heat conduction and boundary conditions for the temperature distribution function have been formulated. Generalization of the indicated one-dimensional boundary-value problems to the case of a larger number of measurements is given in an invariant form.
Author:  V. V. Shevelev
Keywords:  heat conduction, source, sink, stochasticity, boundary conditions
Page:  614

APPLICATION OF DUAL INTEGRAL EQUATIONS IN HEAT EQUATION FOR UNBOUNDED PLATE
An analytical solution to a two-dimensional nonstationary nonhomogeneous heat equation in axially symmetrical cylindrical coordinates for an unbounded plate subjected to mixed boundary conditions of the fi rst and second kinds has been obtained. The application of the Laplace transform (L-transform) and the separation of variables result in the solution to the initial mixed boundary-value problem as the solution to a pair of dual integral equations (DIEs) with an unknown function dependent on the L-transform parameter. The DIEs solution is proposed by using the known discontinuous integrals and an infi nite series method. The Green’s function is used to determine the solution to the nonhomogeneous part of the problem.
Author:  N. A. Hoshan
Keywords:  nonstationary heat equation, dual integral equations, mixed boundary conditions, unbounded plate
Page:  625

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF TURBULENT INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW WITH INCREASING ADVERSE PRESSURE GRADIENT
Consideration is given to separation-free plane fl ow in a boundary layer developing on a smooth diffuser wall under the action of a pressure gradient p(x), where both quantities dp/dx and d2 p/dx2 are positive (adverse pressure gradient). The adverse pressure gradient arose in a diffuser with plane walls (experiment F0141A). The results of numerical calculations of fl ow with a nonzero pressure gradient in the boundary layer of an incompressible liquid with the use of the near-wall k–ε model of turbulence are given. A comparison of the basic characteristics of fl ow with tested experimental and theoretical data is made.
Author:  V. M. Zubarev
Keywords:  turbulent fl ows, near-wall k–ε models of turbulence, boundary layer, pressure gradient, near-wall fl ows, numerical method, incompressible liquid, diffuser.
Page:  631

FLOW IN THE NOZZLE OF AN ALTERNATING-CURRENT PLASMA GENERATOR WITH A NONSTATIONARY LOCAL ENERGY SUPPLY
A numerical simulation of gas fl ows in the nozzle of an alternating-current plasma generator with a nonstationary local energy supply has been performed. The nonstationary gas fl ows in the plasma-generator nozzle with a highpower energy supply were simulated using the fi nite-volume method and the vectorized approach to the calculation of fl ows. Results of numerical simulation of the one-dimensional and two-dimensional gas fl ows in the nozzle of an alternating-current plasma generator with a moving energy-supply zone are presented. On the basis of the numericalsimulation data obtained, a quantitative analysis of the gasdynamic and thermal processes occurring in the nozzle of such a generator with a nonstationary energy supply to the gas fl ow in it has been performed. The dependence of the rate of an overexpanded gas fl ow in the plasma-generator nozzle and the shift of a compression shock in it on the power and cyclicity of the energy supply to the subsonic section of the nozzle was determined.
Author:  N. A. Brykov, K. N. Volkov, V. N. Emel′yanov, and I. V. Teterina
Keywords:  plasma generator, energy supply, gas-fl ow rate, compression shock, computational fl ow dynamics
Page:  640

MODELING THE PROCESS OF VAPOR–GAS MIXTURE OUTFLOW FROM THE DRAINAGE MANIFOLD OF THE ROCKET-CARRIER STAGE
The process of outfl ow of a vapor–gas mixture (pressurization gas and vapors of fuel components) into an underpressure medium has been considered by using the ideal gas model. Basic assumptions and limitations for theoretical and experimental modeling are given, in particular, for the gas temperature and pressure in the course of experiments. A mathematical and a physical models have been developed, and closely coinciding numerical and experimental results have been obtained within the framework of the introduced assumptions and limitations. The results obtained confi rm the validity of the models developed.
Author:  K. I. Zharikov and V. I. Trushlyakov
Keywords:  vapor–gas mixture, ideal gas, drainage, fuel tank, similarity numbers, experimental rig
Page:  651

A VORTEX SOURCE IN THE RANQUE VORTEX TUBE
Based on the model of a plane twisted fl ow, a theoretical analysis of the effectiveness of energy separation of a vortex source functioning in a twisted fl ow with a given tangential velocity component in a Ranque vortex tube has been carried out.
Author:  V. D. Tyutyuma
Keywords:  vortex source, vortex sink, Ranque–Hilsch effect, vortex effect, twisted fl ow, velocity fi eld, distribution of thermodynamic parameters
Page:  664

MODELING NONSTATIONARY GAS-FREE COMBUSTION PROCESSES WITH ACCOUNT OF SAMPLE STRUCTURE HETEROGENEITY
A model of nonstationary gas-free combustion has been formulated with account for the structure heterogeneity and for the temperature dependence of diffusion with the use of two models of reaction cells: plane and spherical ones. Numerical simulation of the propagation of the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) wave and a comparative analysis of the SHS wave propagation velocity was carried out with the use of two models of reaction cells. The numerical investigations have shown that with the use of the model of spherical reaction cells the SHS wave propagation velocity is higher than for plane cells by 1.7 times. Dependences of the rate of combustion on the characteristic value of the heterogeneous structure of a sample have been obtained. The computational–theoretical values of the SHS wave propagation velocity coincide with good accuracy with experimental data in a wide range of the dimension of the heterogeneous structure of SHS.
Author:  A. Yu. Krainov and D. S. Shul′ts
Keywords:  self-propagating high-temperature synthesis, reaction cells, wave velocity, mathematical simulation.
Page:  673

REGIMES OF COMBUSTION OF GASLESS SYSTEMS WITH A MELTING COMPONENT IN A STRONG-INSTABILITY REGION
A numerical investigation of the infl uence of the thermocapillary fl ow of a melt of an inert component of a gasless mixture on spin regimes of combustion in a strong-instability region has been carried out. New periodic regimes of spin combustion have been found. With increase in the velocity of melt fl ow, the stabilization of combustion, i.e., transition from spin regimes to a quasi-one-dimensional structure of the combustion wave, occurs.
Author:  V. G. Prokof′ev and V. K. Smolyakov
Keywords:  gasless combustion, spin regime, melting, thermocapillary fl ow
Page:  682

INTERACTION OF A LIQUID AEROSOL WITH THE COMBUSTION FRONT OF A FOREST COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF COUNTERCURRENT AIR FLOW
Experimental investigations on the characteristic times of suppression of the fl ame combustion and thermal decomposition of wastes of coniferous and deciduous forest trees under the action of a liquid aerosol have been performed. As forest combustible materials, birch leaves and a mixture of components of a forest ground cover (leaves, needles, twigs) were used. Three schemes of interaction of a water droplet fl ow with a forest combustible material in the process of its burning were considered: the fi rst scheme in which a material is preliminary moistened by the water sprayed upstream of its combustion front, the second scheme in which a liquid aerosol is supplied directly to the combustion front, and the third combined scheme in which water is sprayed upstream of the combustion front and over it. The infl uence of a favoring and an adverse air fl ows on the termination of combustion of a model fi re hotbed was investigated. The conditions of spraying of water over forest combustible materials, providing the suppression of their fl ame combustion and thermal decomposition, were determined.
Author:  A. O. Zhdanova, G. V. Kuznetsov, G. S. Nyashina, and I. S. Voitkov
Keywords:  forest combustible material, fl ame combustion, thermal decomposition, combustion front, aerosol fl ow
Page:  687

POWER-LAW FLUID FLOW IN A T-SHAPED CHANNEL UNDER THE ACTION OF ASSIGNED PRESSURE DROP
Plane non-Newtonian incompressible fl uid fl ow in a T-shaped channel is considered. The effective viscosity is determined according to the Ostwald–de Waele law. The fl uid moves under the action of the given pressure drop in the boundary sections of the channel. The no-slip condition is fulfi lled on the solid walls. The problem is solved numerically by the control volume method with the use of the SIMPLE procedure. As a result of the investigation carried out, the characteristic fl ow regimes have been revealed. The infl uence of the basic parameters of the problem on the fl ow pattern has been demonstrated, and the dimensionless relations of fl ow characteristics have been constructed.
Author:  E. I. Borzenko and O. A. D′yakova
Keywords:  fl ow, power-law fl uid, T-shaped channel, no-slip condition, numerical simulation, fl ow regime.
Page:  694

STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES AND MODEL RHEOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF AN ELC LAYER OF HEXADECANE
Rheological investigations of a heterophase interlayer of n-hexadecane on a conductive substrate allowed establishing the temperature dependence of the thickness of the wall ELC layer, which affects one key characteristic of a lubricant, i.e., its "hydrodynamic strength."
Author:  A. Yu. Popovskii, B. A. Altoiz, and V. F. Butenko
Keywords:  epitropic liquid crystal, structural parameters, hydrodynamic strength, effective viscosity, rheological model
Page:  703

MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF THE HEAT AND MASS EXCHANGE IN THE PROCESS OF CONVECTIVE-RADIANT HEATING OF A BLUNT-NOSED BODY
A numerical analysis of the nonstationary heat and mass exchange in the heat-resistant composite material (a carbon-fi lled plastic), forming a cover of the conic part of a blunt-nosed body exposed repeatedly to a pulsed laser radiation, has been performed on the basis of the heat model of destruction of such a material. Different regimes of thermochemical destruction of the carbon-fi lled plastic due to the action of a moderate-intensity laser radiation on it under the conditions where the porous material of the spherical bluntness of the body is not melted were determined. It was established that the gaseous products of pyrolysis of the carbon material as well as its condensed-phase particles and vapor play a dominant role in the shielding of the surface of the conic part of the body from the laser radiation
Author:  K. N. Efi mov, V. A. Ovchinnikov, A. S. Yakimov,* and S. A. Gaar
Keywords:  laser radiation, heat exchange, thermochemical destruction, shielding, heat-resistant material.
Page:  710

ANALYTICAL MODEL OF THE PROCESS OF STEAM-ASSISTED GRAVITY DRAINAGE IN AN ANISOTROPIC BED
An analytical model of the process of steam-assisted gravity drainage in an element of the superviscous oil pool development has been constructed. The infl uence of the bed permeability anisotropy on the production rate of a producing horizontal well and cumulative steam–oil ratio has been investigated. A comparison of the calculated output of a horizontal well by the proposed model with the results of physical modeling of the process of steamassisted gravity drainage has been made.
Author:  P. E. Morozov
Keywords:  analytical model, steam-assisted gravity drainage, horizontal well, production rate, cumulative steam– oil ratio, permeability anisotropy
Page:  723

INJECTION OF A COLD GAS INTO A SNOW MASS PARTIALLY SATURATED WITH THIS GAS WITH HYDRATE FORMATION
The problem on the injection of a cold gas into a snow mass partially saturated with this gas, accompanied by hydrate formation, was solved numerically. The case where the rate of hydrate formation is limited by the diffusion of the gas through the hydrate layer, formed between the gas and ice phases, to the ice–hydrate contact boundary was considered. The formation of a hydrate by the equilibrium scheme, in accordance with which the state of the initial gas–snow system changes in the process of injection of a gas into it in line with the phase-equilibrium curve of the gas–snow–hydrate system, was investigated. It was established that, in the case of complete transformation of the show in a snow mass into the hydrate state in the process of hydrate formation in it under equilibrium conditions, in the snow mass there appears a moving boundary separating it into two zones: a zone saturated with the gas and the hydrate and a zone in which snow, the gas, and the hydrate are present at the same time.
Author:  V. Sh. Shagapov, A. S. Chiglintseva and S. V. Belova
Keywords:  cold gas, snow, gas–snow system, snow saturation, fi ltration, gas diffusion, equilibrium scheme
Page:  729

IONIC-ELECTROSTATIC MODEL OF THE WEDGE PRESSURE AND SPECIFIC AREA OF COLLOIDAL SYSTEMS
A physically substantiated ionic-electrostatic model of the wedge pressure by Deryagin, modifi ed for defi nition of the water retentivity of natural and artifi cial colloidal dispersions with a variable moisture content (soils, grounds, clay minerals, wood, caustobioliths, synthetic polymeric hydrogels), is considered. In this model, the relation between the moisture content and dispersivity (effective specifi c area) of a colloidal system serves as a phase variable. For the fi rst time, with the use of the sorption-equilibrium, moisture-thermodesorption, and equilibrium-centrifugation methods, wedge-pressure isotherms, representing the dependence of the thermodynamic moisture potential (specifi c Gibbs energy) of a material on the mass fraction of moisture in it, were obtained for materials different in genesis and dispersivity, whose thermodynamic moisture potential varies in absolute value within the wide range 0.1–260 kJ/kg, and the wedge pressure of colloid-bonded disperse systems was quantitatively estimated with regard for the variable factors (temperature, composition, liquid-phase concentration) of the aggregative stability of their colloidal complex determining the phenomenon of dynamics of the dispersivity and water retentivity of such systems. A methodology of calculating the effective specifi c area of a material by the slope of its wedge-pressure isotherms, constructed at the logarithmic scale, is proposed as an alternative to the standard Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method. The new method is close to the traditional one in the specifi c area of a material obtained with them, but the method proposed differs favorably from the standard method by the temperature invariance and the possibility of calculating the energy of interphase interactions in the material with the use of the generalized Hamaker constant.
Author:  A. V. Smagin
Keywords:  colloidal system, gels, thermodynamics, dispersivity, specifi c area, wedge-pressure isotherms, electric double layer, interphase interactions.
Page:  744

MODELING OF THE PROCESS OF ADSORPTION OF GASES IN PACKED COLUMNS AND TUBULAR ABSORBERS
Mathematical models of the processes of heat and mass transfer in packed columns and tubular absorbers have been constructed. A numerical calculation of the effi ciency of SO2  absorption by water in packed columns and hollow jet scrubbers has been carried out, and a distinct advantage of the packed columns over the indicated scrubbers has been established in both the effi ciency of extraction of the target gas components by the absorbent and the overall dimensions of the apparatuses. Calculations of the CO2 absorption have been carried out, and a comparison of the effi ciency and energetics of direct-fl ow and counterfl ow packed columns has been made for different dimensions of packing elements. In modeling the process of adsorption in a packed column, use was made of the existing empirical data in the volume mass transfer in granular beds and of the theoretical representation of the masstransfer coeffi cient for fi lm fl ow. A comparison of calculation results in these two cases has shown their complete agreement, in practice. Heat and mass transfer in a tubular absorber was described by the fi lm mechanism in two cases: where the entire free cross-sectional area is open and where only the inner cross section of a cylindrical tube is open. A comparison has been made of the results of calculations of heat and mass transfer in packed columns and tubular absorbers under relevant conditions. The proposed models can be used for engineering and optimization calculations of industrial packed columns and tubular absorbers.
Author:  M. I. Shilyaev and E. M. Khromova
Keywords:  packed column, tubular absorber, absorption, heat and mass transfer
Page:  756

MODELING OF STRUCTURE FORMATION IN MIXTURES USING THE METHOD OF SELF-PROPAGATING HIGH-TEMPERATURE SYNTHESIS
An investigation is made of the specifi c features of compaction of thin layers consisting of monodisperse calibrated solid balls that model a bidisperse powder mixture of large metallic and fi ne nonmetallic particles used for fabricating layer-by-layer compressed long-measuring blanks intended for the production of high-melting materials by the method of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis. Consideration is given to the case of one-sided axial compression of thin layers of balls in a matrix of hexagonal cross section at the ratio of the cross-sectional dimension of the matrix to the ball diameter equal to L/d ≈ 15.
Author:  M. A. Ponomarev and V. É. Loryan
Keywords:  self-propagating high-temperature synthesis, solid balls, dissipative structures, tight packings, regular layings.
Page:  774

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL AND HYDRAULIC PERFORMANCE OF A PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER USING NANOFLUIDS
Gasketed plate heat exchangers (PHEs) occupy a crucial position in the energy sector due to their effi cient and compact design. A number of studies have focused on making the plate heat exchangers more effi cient and compact, since energy usage increases day by day. Therefore, the idea of utilizing nanofl uids, whose thermophysical properties are better than those of industrial fl uids, have drawn the attention of researchers. An experimental setup was designed and constructed at the TOBB ETU Heat Exchangers Laboratory to investigate the effect of utilizing nanofl uids in a plate heat exchanger. The experiments were performed with three different working fl uids, namely, tap water and 1 and 0.5 wt.% Al2O3/water nanofl uids in a hot cycle. For all cases, the fl ow rates were 100–450 L/h, and the experiments were repeated three times for accuracy. As a result of this study, new correlations for the Nusselt number and heat transfer enhancement rates were obtained. Moreover, the friction factor correlations were found for all cases, and the effect of nanofl uids on the pressure drop has been revealed.
Author:  U. Kayabaşı, S. Kakaç, S. Aradag, and A. Pramuanjaroenkij
Keywords:  nanofl uids, gasketed plate heat exchanger, experimental study, heat transfer
Page:  783

IMPROVING METHODS TO CALCULATE HEAT TRANSFER DURING THE CONDENSATION INSIDE TUBES
An analysis has been made of methods to calculate heat transfer during the condensation of a vapor inside smooth vertical and horizontal tubes. The presence of a disagreement of 30–100% between experimental data and calculations by different methods (theoretical, semiempirical, and empirical) has been noted; boundary values of parameters in the Anan′ev, Boiko, and Kruzhilin semiempirical dependences have been substantiated, at which there is a good agreement between the experiments on condensation of vapors of many substances and calculations from the formulas of these authors. A semiempirical dependence has been given to calculate condensation heat transfer in the case where Re > 800 and the parameter governing the vapor velocity is β > 10.
Author:  V. G. Rifert, V. V. Gorin, V. V. Sereda, and V. V. Treputnev
Keywords:  fi lm condensation, heat transfer, smooth tube, interphase friction.
Page:  797

CALCULATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION INTO THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF MATERIALS OF CERAMIC CASTING MOLDS. I. EXPERIMENT
The authors have conducted an experimental investigation into the thermal conductivity of materials of ceramic molds for investment casting of heat-resistant alloys. The general characteristic of the methods and equipment used to measure the thermal conductivity of such materials has been given. Results of measuring the thermal conductivity of a number of materials with powders of a course alumina aggregate and of fi ne alimuna, mullite, and zircon aggregates in the range of temperatures from 20 to 1700o C have been given.
Author:  A. V. Zuev, M. G. Razmakhov, D. Ya. Barinov, and P. S. Marakhovskii
Keywords:  polydisperse ceramic materials, mold for investment casting, thermal conductivity.
Page:  805

METHODS OF NUMERICAL MODELING OF A RAILGUN WITH MAGNETIZATION TURNS
Methods of numerical modeling of an electromagnetic fi eld in electrodynamic launchers of the railgun type in the presence of magnetization turns have been proposed. Results of employment of different methods to model the electromagnetic fi eld in a modular augmented staged electromagnetic launcher (MASEL) have been presented; a comparison of the results of simulation and full-scale experiments has been made. The issue of the dependence of the electromagnetic fi eld on the confi guration of magnetization turns has been investigated.
Author:  M. P. Galanin, A. K. Kondratenko, V. V. Lukin, A. S. Rodin, and D. L. Sorokin
Keywords:  system of Maxwell equations, electrodynamic launcher, railgun, magnetization turn
Page:  820

ANALYSIS OF POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE DESTRUCTION ON HIGH-SPEED LOADING
A system of equations is presented for describing the shock-compressed state of polymethylmethacrylate in the approximation of uniaxial deformation. With the use of the Prandtl–Reuss model, the mechanism of transition of the brittle failure of polymethylmethacrylate to the brittle-plastic one at high speeds of the striker and high times of its effect on this mechanism has been determined.
Author:  A. M. Kugotova, B. I. Kunizhev, A. Kh. Adzhiev, A. A. Adzhieva,b L. V. Kanukoeva and Z. Kh. Gaitukieva
Keywords:  shock dynamic compression, shock adiabat, polymethylmethacrylate, polyethylene, high-speed impact.
Page:  829

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