#### Volume 92, №3

**METHODS OF EMERGENCY HEAT REMOVAL FROM POOLS AND STORAGES OF SPENT FUEL OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS**

In the paper, consideration is given to possible methods of heat removal from water pools and storages of spent nuclear fuel of atomic power plants, which can be employed in an emergency due to failure of the regular cooling system of the pool. The authors present results of investigation of two passive methods of emergency cooling of spentfuel water pools: the fi rst method is to use emergency accumulator reservoirs with a cooling-water supply, and the
second, to use boiling channels whose action is based on the effect of creating driving head in the emergency system
of natural circulation of the cooling pond of the coolant.

**Author:**
Yu. E. Karyakin, N. N. Peich, A. A. Pletnev, and E. D. Fedorovich

**Keywords:**
spent nuclear fuel, pool, nuclear fuel storage, emergency removal of heat, accumulator reservoir, boiling channels

**Page:**
553

**OPTIMIZATION OF A HYBRID POWER PLANT ON THE BASIS OF THE MODELING OF THERMAL PROCESSES IN IT**

Consideration has been given to the problem of optimization of the structure and parameters of an autonomous hybrid
power plant operating from renewable energy sources (sun and wind) and methanol fuel cells using mathematical
models of thermal processes in it. Examples of practical application of the developed models have been provided.
Results of simulation experiments on development of the indicated power plant have been given

**Author:**
A. S. Grigor′ev, V. V. Skorlygin, S. A. Grigor′ev, D. A. Mel′nik, and O. G. Losev

**Keywords:**
hybrid system, off-network power supply, electrochemical energy, methanol fuel cell, renewable energy sources

**Page:**
562

**THE POSSIBILITY OF CONVERTING ENERGY IN SPACE WITH THE AID OF A CHAIN HEAT MACHINE OPERATING ON METHANE AND NITROGEN**

An analysis has been made of the useful mechanical work done in space with the aid of a heat machine, in which the
working body consists of liquids with a superlow boiling temperature (methane and nitrogen). The use of nitrogen
and methane is facilitated by the low temperature of the cosmic background radiation making it possible to cool
nitrogen and methane to very low temperatures. The investigation is carried out on the basis of modeling the chain
heat machine consisting of two units. The setting of the stationary regime of machine operation takes several hours.
The scattering of energy into the outer space requires a condenser of large area.

**Author:**
K. O. Sabdenov, M. Erzada, and A. T. Suleimenov

**Keywords:**
superlow boiling temperature, power conversion, chain heat machine.

**Page:**
574

**RAISING THE EFFICIENCY OF HEAT-EXCHANGE TUBES OF POWER INSTALLATIONS**

he authors show prospects for using upgraded forms of discrete roughness that will make it possible to accomplish
savings in electric energy for pumping the heat-transfer agent and in structural materials while creating heatengineering and heat-power equipment due to the employment of passive methods to enhance heat transfer.

**Author:**
V. V. Olimpiev, B. G. Mirzoev, I. A. Popov,

**Keywords:**
heat-power installation, enhancement of heat transfer, discrete roughness, heat-exchange tube

**Page:**
585

**FEATURES OF GRAVITATIONAL FLOW OF HEATED AIR IN AN EXHAUST SHAFT ABOVE A MULTIROW FINNED BANK**

The authors have carried out investigations into the introduction of hot-air heating systems in buildings and
structures, and also the applicability of mixed convection in calorifers of recirculating air heaters. The heat transfer
of two- and four-row staggered air-heater banks consisting of bimetallic fi nned tubes in mixed convection has been
studied. Experimental investigations into the characteristics of a gravitational fl ow of heated air in an exhaust shaft
above a heat-exchange bank in a mixed-convection regime have been presented. An increase of 1.5–3 times in the
heat transfer in the mixed-convection regime compared to the heat transfer under conditions of free convection of the
air has been established. The dynamics of motion of a geyser fl ow of heated air in the exhaust shaft above the heatexchange bank under gravity has been described. A decline of 20–50% in the heat transfer of staggered two- and
four-row banks because of the presence of geyser air fl ows has been established. A method to diminish the adverse
impact of geyser air fl ows on the heat transfer of the bank has been proposed.

**Author:**
A. B. Sukhotskii and G. S. Marshalova

**Keywords:**
air heating, gravitational movement of air, bimetallic fi nned tube, exhaust shaft, mixed convection, heattransfer coeffi cient, Nusselt number, Grashof number, geyser air fl ow

**Page:**
596

**THERMOLYSIS OF POLYMERIC COMPOSITE MATERIALS**

The author has substantiated the use of the steam-thermolysis method for thermal utilization of waste polymeric
composite materials to obtain valuable components in the form of recyclable fi bers. On the basis of the performed
investigations, it has been established that during the steam thermolysis of waste composite materials, the processes
of formation of persistent organic pollutants are suppressed.

**Author:**
G. I. Zhuravskii

**Keywords:**
polymeric composite material, recycling, steam thermolysis, pyrolysis, carbon fi ber, carbon fi ber reinforced plastic, ecology

**Page:**
603

**NONSTATIONARY HEAT CONDUCTION IN A CURVILINEAR PLATE WITH ACCOUNT OF SPATIAL NONLOCALITY**

At the present time, an important stage in the creation and use of new structurally sensitive materials is the
construction of mathematical models allowing one to describe the behavior of these materials in a wide range of
variation of external effects. In this work, a model of heat conduction in structurally sensitive materials is suggested
that accounts for the nonlocality of the medium over the space and the curvature of the plate. With the use of the
integrointerpolation method, a difference scheme is constructed and a numerical solution of the problem of highly
intense surface heating is found. The infl uence of the nonlocality and plate curvature parameters on temperature
distribution has been investigated.

**Author:**
G. N. Kuvyrkin, I. Yu. Savel′eva, and D. A. Kuvshinnikova

**Keywords:**
nonlocality, heat conduction equation, curvilinear plate, difference scheme.

**Page:**
608

**STOCHASTIC MODEL OF HEAT CONDUCTION WITH HEAT SOURCES OR SINKS**

A one-dimensional stochastic model of heat conduction has been developed for the case of the presence of heat
sources or sinks in the region of transfer. Boundary-value problems for average temperature and temperature fi eld
dispersion in the region of heat conduction and boundary conditions for the temperature distribution function have
been formulated. Generalization of the indicated one-dimensional boundary-value problems to the case of a larger
number of measurements is given in an invariant form.

**Author:**
V. V. Shevelev

**Keywords:**
heat conduction, source, sink, stochasticity, boundary conditions

**Page:**
614

**APPLICATION OF DUAL INTEGRAL EQUATIONS IN HEAT EQUATION FOR UNBOUNDED PLATE**

An analytical solution to a two-dimensional nonstationary nonhomogeneous heat equation in axially symmetrical
cylindrical coordinates for an unbounded plate subjected to mixed boundary conditions of the fi rst and second kinds
has been obtained. The application of the Laplace transform (L-transform) and the separation of variables result in
the solution to the initial mixed boundary-value problem as the solution to a pair of dual integral equations (DIEs)
with an unknown function dependent on the L-transform parameter. The DIEs solution is proposed by using the
known discontinuous integrals and an infi nite series method. The Green’s function is used to determine the solution
to the nonhomogeneous part of the problem.

**Author:**
N. A. Hoshan

**Keywords:**
nonstationary heat equation, dual integral equations, mixed boundary conditions, unbounded plate

**Page:**
625

**NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF TURBULENT INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW WITH INCREASING ADVERSE PRESSURE GRADIENT**

Consideration is given to separation-free plane fl ow in a boundary layer developing on a smooth diffuser wall under the action of a pressure gradient p(x), where both quantities dp/dx and d^{2}
p/dx^{2}
are positive (adverse pressure
gradient). The adverse pressure gradient arose in a diffuser with plane walls (experiment F0141A). The results of
numerical calculations of fl ow with a nonzero pressure gradient in the boundary layer of an incompressible liquid
with the use of the near-wall k–ε model of turbulence are given. A comparison of the basic characteristics of fl ow
with tested experimental and theoretical data is made.

**Author:**
V. M. Zubarev

**Keywords:**
turbulent fl ows, near-wall k–ε models of turbulence, boundary layer, pressure gradient, near-wall fl ows, numerical method, incompressible liquid, diffuser.

**Page:**
631

**FLOW IN THE NOZZLE OF AN ALTERNATING-CURRENT PLASMA GENERATOR WITH A NONSTATIONARY LOCAL ENERGY SUPPLY**

A numerical simulation of gas fl ows in the nozzle of an alternating-current plasma generator with a nonstationary
local energy supply has been performed. The nonstationary gas fl ows in the plasma-generator nozzle with a highpower energy supply were simulated using the fi nite-volume method and the vectorized approach to the calculation
of fl ows. Results of numerical simulation of the one-dimensional and two-dimensional gas fl ows in the nozzle of an
alternating-current plasma generator with a moving energy-supply zone are presented. On the basis of the numericalsimulation data obtained, a quantitative analysis of the gasdynamic and thermal processes occurring in the nozzle
of such a generator with a nonstationary energy supply to the gas fl ow in it has been performed. The dependence of
the rate of an overexpanded gas fl ow in the plasma-generator nozzle and the shift of a compression shock in it on the
power and cyclicity of the energy supply to the subsonic section of the nozzle was determined.

**Author:**
N. A. Brykov, K. N. Volkov, V. N. Emel′yanov, and I. V. Teterina

**Keywords:**
plasma generator, energy supply, gas-fl ow rate, compression shock, computational fl ow dynamics

**Page:**
640

**MODELING THE PROCESS OF VAPOR–GAS MIXTURE OUTFLOW FROM THE DRAINAGE MANIFOLD OF THE ROCKET-CARRIER STAGE**

The process of outfl ow of a vapor–gas mixture (pressurization gas and vapors of fuel components) into an underpressure medium has been considered by using the ideal gas model. Basic assumptions and limitations for theoretical
and experimental modeling are given, in particular, for the gas temperature and pressure in the course of experiments.
A mathematical and a physical models have been developed, and closely coinciding numerical and experimental
results have been obtained within the framework of the introduced assumptions and limitations. The results obtained
confi rm the validity of the models developed.

**Author:**
K. I. Zharikov and V. I. Trushlyakov

**Keywords:**
vapor–gas mixture, ideal gas, drainage, fuel tank, similarity numbers, experimental rig

**Page:**
651

**A VORTEX SOURCE IN THE RANQUE VORTEX TUBE**

Based on the model of a plane twisted fl ow, a theoretical analysis of the effectiveness of energy separation of a vortex
source functioning in a twisted fl ow with a given tangential velocity component in a Ranque vortex tube has been
carried out.

**Author:**
V. D. Tyutyuma

**Keywords:**
vortex source, vortex sink, Ranque–Hilsch effect, vortex effect, twisted fl ow, velocity fi eld, distribution of thermodynamic parameters

**Page:**
664

**MODELING NONSTATIONARY GAS-FREE COMBUSTION PROCESSES WITH ACCOUNT OF SAMPLE STRUCTURE HETEROGENEITY**

A model of nonstationary gas-free combustion has been formulated with account for the structure heterogeneity
and for the temperature dependence of diffusion with the use of two models of reaction cells: plane and spherical
ones. Numerical simulation of the propagation of the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) wave and
a comparative analysis of the SHS wave propagation velocity was carried out with the use of two models of reaction
cells. The numerical investigations have shown that with the use of the model of spherical reaction cells the SHS
wave propagation velocity is higher than for plane cells by 1.7 times. Dependences of the rate of combustion on the
characteristic value of the heterogeneous structure of a sample have been obtained. The computational–theoretical
values of the SHS wave propagation velocity coincide with good accuracy with experimental data in a wide range of
the dimension of the heterogeneous structure of SHS.

**Author:**
A. Yu. Krainov and D. S. Shul′ts

**Keywords:**
self-propagating high-temperature synthesis, reaction cells, wave velocity, mathematical simulation.

**Page:**
673

**REGIMES OF COMBUSTION OF GASLESS SYSTEMS WITH A MELTING COMPONENT IN A STRONG-INSTABILITY REGION**

A numerical investigation of the infl uence of the thermocapillary fl ow of a melt of an inert component of a gasless
mixture on spin regimes of combustion in a strong-instability region has been carried out. New periodic regimes
of spin combustion have been found. With increase in the velocity of melt fl ow, the stabilization of combustion, i.e.,
transition from spin regimes to a quasi-one-dimensional structure of the combustion wave, occurs.

**Author:**
V. G. Prokof′ev and V. K. Smolyakov

**Keywords:**
gasless combustion, spin regime, melting, thermocapillary fl ow

**Page:**
682

**INTERACTION OF A LIQUID AEROSOL WITH THE COMBUSTION FRONT OF A FOREST COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF COUNTERCURRENT AIR FLOW**

Experimental investigations on the characteristic times of suppression of the fl ame combustion and thermal
decomposition of wastes of coniferous and deciduous forest trees under the action of a liquid aerosol have been
performed. As forest combustible materials, birch leaves and a mixture of components of a forest ground cover (leaves,
needles, twigs) were used. Three schemes of interaction of a water droplet fl ow with a forest combustible material
in the process of its burning were considered: the fi rst scheme in which a material is preliminary moistened by the
water sprayed upstream of its combustion front, the second scheme in which a liquid aerosol is supplied directly to
the combustion front, and the third combined scheme in which water is sprayed upstream of the combustion front and
over it. The infl uence of a favoring and an adverse air fl ows on the termination of combustion of a model fi re hotbed
was investigated. The conditions of spraying of water over forest combustible materials, providing the suppression
of their fl ame combustion and thermal decomposition, were determined.

**Author:**
A. O. Zhdanova, G. V. Kuznetsov, G. S. Nyashina, and I. S. Voitkov

**Keywords:**
forest combustible material, fl ame combustion, thermal decomposition, combustion front, aerosol fl ow

**Page:**
687

**POWER-LAW FLUID FLOW IN A T-SHAPED CHANNEL UNDER THE ACTION OF ASSIGNED PRESSURE DROP**

Plane non-Newtonian incompressible fl uid fl ow in a T-shaped channel is considered. The effective viscosity is
determined according to the Ostwald–de Waele law. The fl uid moves under the action of the given pressure drop
in the boundary sections of the channel. The no-slip condition is fulfi lled on the solid walls. The problem is solved
numerically by the control volume method with the use of the SIMPLE procedure. As a result of the investigation
carried out, the characteristic fl ow regimes have been revealed. The infl uence of the basic parameters of the problem
on the fl ow pattern has been demonstrated, and the dimensionless relations of fl ow characteristics have been
constructed.

**Author:**
E. I. Borzenko and O. A. D′yakova

**Keywords:**
fl ow, power-law fl uid, T-shaped channel, no-slip condition, numerical simulation, fl ow regime.

**Page:**
694

**STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES AND MODEL RHEOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF AN ELC LAYER OF HEXADECANE**

Rheological investigations of a heterophase interlayer of n-hexadecane on a conductive substrate allowed
establishing the temperature dependence of the thickness of the wall ELC layer, which affects one key characteristic
of a lubricant, i.e., its "hydrodynamic strength."

**Author:**
A. Yu. Popovskii, B. A. Altoiz, and V. F. Butenko

**Keywords:**
epitropic liquid crystal, structural parameters, hydrodynamic strength, effective viscosity, rheological model

**Page:**
703

**MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF THE HEAT AND MASS EXCHANGE IN THE PROCESS OF CONVECTIVE-RADIANT HEATING OF A BLUNT-NOSED BODY**

A numerical analysis of the nonstationary heat and mass exchange in the heat-resistant composite material (a
carbon-fi lled plastic), forming a cover of the conic part of a blunt-nosed body exposed repeatedly to a pulsed laser
radiation, has been performed on the basis of the heat model of destruction of such a material. Different regimes of
thermochemical destruction of the carbon-fi lled plastic due to the action of a moderate-intensity laser radiation on it
under the conditions where the porous material of the spherical bluntness of the body is not melted were determined.
It was established that the gaseous products of pyrolysis of the carbon material as well as its condensed-phase
particles and vapor play a dominant role in the shielding of the surface of the conic part of the body from the laser
radiation

**Author:**
K. N. Efi mov, V. A. Ovchinnikov, A. S. Yakimov,* and S. A. Gaar

**Keywords:**
laser radiation, heat exchange, thermochemical destruction, shielding, heat-resistant material.

**Page:**
710

**ANALYTICAL MODEL OF THE PROCESS OF STEAM-ASSISTED GRAVITY DRAINAGE IN AN ANISOTROPIC BED**

An analytical model of the process of steam-assisted gravity drainage in an element of the superviscous oil pool
development has been constructed. The infl uence of the bed permeability anisotropy on the production rate of a
producing horizontal well and cumulative steam–oil ratio has been investigated. A comparison of the calculated
output of a horizontal well by the proposed model with the results of physical modeling of the process of steamassisted gravity drainage has been made.

**Author:**
P. E. Morozov

**Keywords:**
analytical model, steam-assisted gravity drainage, horizontal well, production rate, cumulative steam– oil ratio, permeability anisotropy

**Page:**
723

**INJECTION OF A COLD GAS INTO A SNOW MASS PARTIALLY SATURATED WITH THIS GAS WITH HYDRATE FORMATION**

The problem on the injection of a cold gas into a snow mass partially saturated with this gas, accompanied by
hydrate formation, was solved numerically. The case where the rate of hydrate formation is limited by the diffusion
of the gas through the hydrate layer, formed between the gas and ice phases, to the ice–hydrate contact boundary was
considered. The formation of a hydrate by the equilibrium scheme, in accordance with which the state of the initial
gas–snow system changes in the process of injection of a gas into it in line with the phase-equilibrium curve of the
gas–snow–hydrate system, was investigated. It was established that, in the case of complete transformation of the
show in a snow mass into the hydrate state in the process of hydrate formation in it under equilibrium conditions, in
the snow mass there appears a moving boundary separating it into two zones: a zone saturated with the gas and the
hydrate and a zone in which snow, the gas, and the hydrate are present at the same time.

**Author:**
V. Sh. Shagapov, A. S. Chiglintseva and S. V. Belova

**Keywords:**
cold gas, snow, gas–snow system, snow saturation, fi ltration, gas diffusion, equilibrium scheme

**Page:**
729

**IONIC-ELECTROSTATIC MODEL OF THE WEDGE PRESSURE AND SPECIFIC AREA OF COLLOIDAL SYSTEMS**

A physically substantiated ionic-electrostatic model of the wedge pressure by Deryagin, modifi ed for defi nition of the
water retentivity of natural and artifi cial colloidal dispersions with a variable moisture content (soils, grounds, clay
minerals, wood, caustobioliths, synthetic polymeric hydrogels), is considered. In this model, the relation between
the moisture content and dispersivity (effective specifi c area) of a colloidal system serves as a phase variable. For
the fi rst time, with the use of the sorption-equilibrium, moisture-thermodesorption, and equilibrium-centrifugation
methods, wedge-pressure isotherms, representing the dependence of the thermodynamic moisture potential (specifi c
Gibbs energy) of a material on the mass fraction of moisture in it, were obtained for materials different in genesis and
dispersivity, whose thermodynamic moisture potential varies in absolute value within the wide range 0.1–260 kJ/kg,
and the wedge pressure of colloid-bonded disperse systems was quantitatively estimated with regard for the variable
factors (temperature, composition, liquid-phase concentration) of the aggregative stability of their colloidal complex
determining the phenomenon of dynamics of the dispersivity and water retentivity of such systems. A methodology of
calculating the effective specifi c area of a material by the slope of its wedge-pressure isotherms, constructed at the
logarithmic scale, is proposed as an alternative to the standard Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method. The new method
is close to the traditional one in the specifi c area of a material obtained with them, but the method proposed differs
favorably from the standard method by the temperature invariance and the possibility of calculating the energy of
interphase interactions in the material with the use of the generalized Hamaker constant.

**Author:**
A. V. Smagin

**Keywords:**
colloidal system, gels, thermodynamics, dispersivity, specifi c area, wedge-pressure isotherms, electric double layer, interphase interactions.

**Page:**
744

**MODELING OF THE PROCESS OF ADSORPTION OF GASES IN PACKED COLUMNS AND TUBULAR ABSORBERS**

Mathematical models of the processes of heat and mass transfer in packed columns and tubular absorbers have been constructed. A numerical calculation of the effi ciency of SO_{2} absorption by water in packed columns and hollow jet scrubbers has been carried out, and a distinct advantage of the packed columns over the indicated scrubbers has been established in both the effi ciency of extraction of the target gas components by the absorbent and the overall dimensions of the apparatuses. Calculations of the CO_{2} absorption have been carried out, and a comparison of the
effi ciency and energetics of direct-fl ow and counterfl ow packed columns has been made for different dimensions
of packing elements. In modeling the process of adsorption in a packed column, use was made of the existing
empirical data in the volume mass transfer in granular beds and of the theoretical representation of the masstransfer coeffi cient for fi lm fl ow. A comparison of calculation results in these two cases has shown their complete
agreement, in practice. Heat and mass transfer in a tubular absorber was described by the fi lm mechanism in two
cases: where the entire free cross-sectional area is open and where only the inner cross section of a cylindrical tube
is open. A comparison has been made of the results of calculations of heat and mass transfer in packed columns and
tubular absorbers under relevant conditions. The proposed models can be used for engineering and optimization
calculations of industrial packed columns and tubular absorbers.

**Author:**
M. I. Shilyaev and E. M. Khromova

**Keywords:**
packed column, tubular absorber, absorption, heat and mass transfer

**Page:**
756

**MODELING OF STRUCTURE FORMATION IN MIXTURES USING THE METHOD OF SELF-PROPAGATING HIGH-TEMPERATURE SYNTHESIS**

An investigation is made of the specifi c features of compaction of thin layers consisting of monodisperse calibrated
solid balls that model a bidisperse powder mixture of large metallic and fi ne nonmetallic particles used for
fabricating layer-by-layer compressed long-measuring blanks intended for the production of high-melting materials
by the method of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis. Consideration is given to the case of one-sided axial
compression of thin layers of balls in a matrix of hexagonal cross section at the ratio of the cross-sectional dimension
of the matrix to the ball diameter equal to L/d ≈ 15.

**Author:**
M. A. Ponomarev and V. É. Loryan

**Keywords:**
self-propagating high-temperature synthesis, solid balls, dissipative structures, tight packings, regular layings.

**Page:**
774

**EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL AND HYDRAULIC PERFORMANCE OF A PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER USING NANOFLUIDS**

Gasketed plate heat exchangers (PHEs) occupy a crucial position in the energy sector due to their effi cient and compact design. A number of studies have focused on making the plate heat exchangers more effi cient and compact, since energy usage increases day by day. Therefore, the idea of utilizing nanofl uids, whose thermophysical properties are better than those of industrial fl uids, have drawn the attention of researchers. An experimental setup was designed and constructed at the TOBB ETU Heat Exchangers Laboratory to investigate the effect of utilizing nanofl uids in a plate heat exchanger. The experiments were performed with three different working fl uids, namely, tap water and 1 and 0.5 wt.% Al_{2}O_{3}/water nanofl uids in a hot cycle. For all cases, the fl ow rates were 100–450 L/h, and the
experiments were repeated three times for accuracy. As a result of this study, new correlations for the Nusselt number
and heat transfer enhancement rates were obtained. Moreover, the friction factor correlations were found for all
cases, and the effect of nanofl uids on the pressure drop has been revealed.

**Author:**
U. Kayabaşı, S. Kakaç, S. Aradag, and A. Pramuanjaroenkij

**Keywords:**
nanofl uids, gasketed plate heat exchanger, experimental study, heat transfer

**Page:**
783

**IMPROVING METHODS TO CALCULATE HEAT TRANSFER DURING THE CONDENSATION INSIDE TUBES**

An analysis has been made of methods to calculate heat transfer during the condensation of a vapor inside
smooth vertical and horizontal tubes. The presence of a disagreement of 30–100% between experimental data and
calculations by different methods (theoretical, semiempirical, and empirical) has been noted; boundary values of
parameters in the Anan′ev, Boiko, and Kruzhilin semiempirical dependences have been substantiated, at which there
is a good agreement between the experiments on condensation of vapors of many substances and calculations from
the formulas of these authors. A semiempirical dependence has been given to calculate condensation heat transfer
in the case where Re > 800 and the parameter governing the vapor velocity is β > 10.

**Author:**
V. G. Rifert, V. V. Gorin, V. V. Sereda, and V. V. Treputnev

**Keywords:**
fi lm condensation, heat transfer, smooth tube, interphase friction.

**Page:**
797

**CALCULATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION INTO THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF MATERIALS OF CERAMIC CASTING MOLDS. I. EXPERIMENT**

The authors have conducted an experimental investigation into the thermal conductivity of materials of ceramic molds for investment casting of heat-resistant alloys. The general characteristic of the methods and equipment used to measure the thermal conductivity of such materials has been given. Results of measuring the thermal conductivity of a number of materials with powders of a course alumina aggregate and of fi ne alimuna, mullite, and zircon aggregates in the range of temperatures from 20 to 1700^{o}
C have been given.

**Author:**
A. V. Zuev, M. G. Razmakhov, D. Ya. Barinov, and P. S. Marakhovskii

**Keywords:**
polydisperse ceramic materials, mold for investment casting, thermal conductivity.

**Page:**
805

**METHODS OF NUMERICAL MODELING OF A RAILGUN WITH MAGNETIZATION TURNS**

Methods of numerical modeling of an electromagnetic fi eld in electrodynamic launchers of the railgun type in
the presence of magnetization turns have been proposed. Results of employment of different methods to model the
electromagnetic fi eld in a modular augmented staged electromagnetic launcher (MASEL) have been presented; a
comparison of the results of simulation and full-scale experiments has been made. The issue of the dependence of the
electromagnetic fi eld on the confi guration of magnetization turns has been investigated.

**Author:**
M. P. Galanin, A. K. Kondratenko, V. V. Lukin, A. S. Rodin, and D. L. Sorokin

**Keywords:**
system of Maxwell equations, electrodynamic launcher, railgun, magnetization turn

**Page:**
820

**ANALYSIS OF POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE DESTRUCTION ON HIGH-SPEED LOADING**

A system of equations is presented for describing the shock-compressed state of polymethylmethacrylate in the
approximation of uniaxial deformation. With the use of the Prandtl–Reuss model, the mechanism of transition of the
brittle failure of polymethylmethacrylate to the brittle-plastic one at high speeds of the striker and high times of its
effect on this mechanism has been determined.

**Author:**
A. M. Kugotova, B. I. Kunizhev, A. Kh. Adzhiev, A. A. Adzhieva,b L. V. Kanukoeva and Z. Kh. Gaitukieva

**Keywords:**
shock dynamic compression, shock adiabat, polymethylmethacrylate, polyethylene, high-speed impact.

**Page:**
829