Head of the Laboratory


Shnip Aleksandr
PhD

Phone: +375(17)284-21-34
E-mail: shnip@hmti.ac.by


The history of the Laboratory as an independent division of the Institute began since 2002 as a result of dividing the Laboratory of Energy Transfer within the framework of global restructuring of the Institute. Historically, the Laboratory is a successor to the Laboratory of Mathematical Transfer Theory headed by Prof. T.L. Perelman and organized on Academician A.V. Luikov’s initiative in 1962.

Main Research Lines

  • Nucleation kinetics;
  • Heat and mass transfer in phase transitions and chemical conversions;
  • Heat and mass transfer in capillary-porous bodies;
  • Non-equilibrium thermodynamic theory; 
  • Radiative and conductive heat transfer in orbital conditions; modeling of thermal regimes in space apparatuses;

Models and Theoretical Developments
  • Kinetic theory of mass transfer involving evaporation in porous bodies;
  • Non-equilibrium thermodynamic theory of relaxing systems; 
  • Statistical theory of nucleation kinetics

Software
  • Program implementation of the mathematical model for thermal regimes of target apparatuses of the Belarusian spacecraft in orbital conditions and at ground thermal vacuum tests;
  • Bundled software for solution of special problems of the fire expertise “Heating”; 
  • Software for visualization of biological cell magnetophoresis;

Main Research Directions
Theoretical and experimental studies of the processes of steady and unsteady of evaporative cooling, convective heat transfer, and structure features of laminar and turbulent vortex flows 
Study of aerodynamics and hydrodynamics of vapor-air flow interaction with film and drop flows 
Investigation of infrasonic noise propagation, moisture entrainment in the form of drops from a cooling tower and the influence of emissions of thermal and atomic power plants into the environment 
As for applied use, these works are directed to enhance the processes of heat and mass transfer in industrial and power evaporative cooling equipment with the intent of augmenting its thermal performance.

Basic Developments

As a result of long-term experimental and theoretical studies, a set of engineering decisions on an essential enhancement of the cooling ability of chimney-type evaporative cooling towers of electric power plants is developed.
The engineering developments are based on the aerodynamic methods for optimization of cooling air flow distributions at the entrance of a cooling tower and inside it.
All the below engineering developments are defended by BY patents.

  • Aerodynamic swirler.

    It represents a system of slotted channels formed by vertical shields that are mounted in air entrance windows over the outer profile of the bottom of the cooling tower chimney and are directed so that the air flow moving in them would have one and the same tangential velocity component for each channel. Just this velocity determines the rotation intensity of a vapor-air medium inside a cooling tower. The aerodynamic swirler enables essentially improving the aerodynamics of air flows at the entrance of a cooling tower and inside it, enhancing heat and mass transfer processes, and thus augmenting the thermal efficiency of a cooling tower. In such a cooling tower, in addition to vertical and horizontal velocity components the resultant air flow velocity acquires one more component – tangential. This allows the cooling air flow to penetrate more deeply and uniformly in the radial direction, thus increasing the interaction path and the contact time of the incoming air flow with sprayed cooled water. This results in an additional (as compared to a cooling tower without an aerodynamic swirler) decrease in the reused water temperature in the cooling tower by several degrees, depending on the turbine operating conditions, climate and weather conditions. Note that in summer, the additional cooling of circulation water in the cooling tower by 1°C under other conditions being equal decreases the standard fuel consumption by 1.2 – 2.0 g per generation of each kilowatt-hour of electric power depending on the turbine type and initial vapor parameters.

    The aerodynamic swirler was highly appreciated by specialists and recommended by the leading developer “BelNIIPIEnergoprom” and the concern “Belenergo” to be used in power engineering in the Republic of Belarus. It is also significant to note that cooling towers can be equipped with swirlers without stopping their operation and without large capital investment. Calculations and our experience in using aerodynamic swirlers show that such modernization is repaid during one-two seasons of operation and then makes a profit. For regions with warmer climate than in the Republic of Belarus, the cost efficiency of the swirler’s use is more essential.

  • Optimum control mechanism of winter horizontal jalousie facilities

    The proposed new design of the jalousie facility augments the water cooling efficiency in the cooling tower due to the increase in the total flowrate of cooled air through the air entrance windows. This design permits the shields to be mounted at an assigned angle to the horizon and can be used independently or in combination with a version of an aerodynamic swirler. A combined use of the aerodynamic swirler and the proposed jalousie facility design enhances the cooling efficiency of the reused water in the cooling tower due to the improvement of the aerodynamics of the incoming air flow in the upper part of the air entrance windows.

  • Ventilation window with an air regulator

    It is well known that the irrigation space of a continuous-flow cooling tower is characterized by a whole series of two-dimensional effects, showing that a considerable central zone of the sprinkler area is at a less density of air flowrate than the peripheral (more far from the center) zone of the sprinkler. Estimates and experiments are indicative of the fact that the size of the dead central zone can be 36 % and more of the total sprinkler area, which corresponds to the area of the circle 0.6 Rirr in radius where Rirr is the maximum radius of the sprinkler. Air enters such a dead zone via secondary flows and turbulent diffusion. This results in considerable water undercooling in the central part of the cooling tower. 
    The staff of the Laboratory proposed a cooling tower, where in the central part of the sprinkler a ventilation window is made. For the first time, this engineering decision was used in reconstructing cooling tower No 1 of the Grodno TEP-2 with an irrigation area of 900 m2.
    A further development of this engineering decision was the patented idea of equipping a ventilation window with a special regulator of air flowrate through this window.

  • Air forced-supply module

    The staff of the Laboratory proposed and patented a method of cooling the liquid in the chimney-type cooling tower, comprising a combined supply of cooling air into the cooling tower due to natural and forced thrust. Its difference from the known methods is that the forced thrust of cooling air is initiated only in the central zone of the cooling tower, while in addition to the natural thrust, in the peripheral zone the secondary flow of cooling air is created by ejecting its jets of the exhaust air flow of the central zone of the cooling tower.
    To implement this method inside the stack at the irrigation system center of the cooling tower, the design of the air forced-supply module was proposed in the form of the internal mechanical-draft cooling tower equipped with a nozzle and an ejector at its exit. The above-mentioned mechanical-draft cooling tower is an active control element of the cooling ability of the feedback chimney-type evaporative tower where natural thrust and additional forced thrust inside the tower harmonize. As a result, the total combined effect exceeds essentially the sum of the effects of each component taken separately..

    These developments can find wide use in power engineering, industry, and agriculture. In power engineering, they allow decreasing the specific fuel consumption for generation of electric energy, increasing the available power of power-generating units, and improving the operation of auxiliary processing equipment. Finally, their use in industry and agriculture permits decreasing specific energy and resource inputs for manufactured products.
    The developments of the Laboratory are implemented in different-type aerodynamic swirler designs for cooling towers of electric power plants that generate their considerable economic efficiency. 

    Cooling towers No 1 and No 4 of the Minsk TEP-4 with the irrigation area of 3200 m2, equipped with different-version aerodynamic swirlers 

    Cooling tower No 1 of the Grodno TEP-2 with the irrigation area of 900 m2 with a built-in aerodynamic swirler and a ventilation window at the sprinkler center 

    The use of the aerodynamic swirler eliminates a gap between the installed and available capacity of thermoelectric power plants during the most intensive thermal period of their operation. 
    Shield-provided aerodynamic swirler of the chimney-type evaporative cooling tower No 2 of the Minsk TEP-3 (August 2008). Visualization of air flows in the upper part of the shields of the aerodynamic swirler of the chimney-type evaporative cooling tower No 4 of the Minsk TEP-4 (August 2007) 

    In 2009, the aerodynamic swirler was installed in the cooling tower No 6 with the irrigation area of 5100 m2 and the height of 110 m at the thermoelectric power plant in the city of Tianjin (Chinese People’s Republic). The tests supported the high operation efficiency of the aerodynamic swirler.

    Appearance of the bottom of the cooling tower No 6 of the thermoelectric power plant in the city of Tianjin, equipped with a remote shield-provided aerodynamic swirler, designed by the co-workers of the Laboratory of Thermohydrodynamics (Chinese People’s Republic, August 2009)

    At the Laboratory, the following test benches have been developed, manufactured, and found successful use:
    -bench for investigating thermal processes and aerodynamics of chimney-type evaporative cooling towers of thermoelectric power plants;
    -bench for complex investigation of unsteady hydraulic processes in water-distributing systems of towers;
    -bench for working through the engineering decisions on the improvement of aerodynamics of incoming air flows for the main types of chimney cooling towers used in power engineering and industry.
    The benches are supplied with required equipment and facilities. There is an automated system of information acquisition and handling in real time from the laboratory model of the chimney cooling tower via the wireline to the remote electronic computer. There is a set of equipment for optical visualization and analysis of the flow structure in optically transparent media; the bench is equipped with a two-channel imitator of wind loads on the test models of cooling towers, etc.

Developments

  • Bobruisk TEP-2, cooling tower (1)
  • Gomel TEP-2, cooling towers (2)
  • Tbilisi State Electric Power Plant “Mtkvari Energy” (Georgia)


 
Simulation of performance of a laminar flow diffusion chamber in nucleation experiments Nucleation theory and applications, ed.: J. Schmelzer. Dubna, JINR, 2006, pp. 169-194.

Fisenko S.P., Brin А.А.

Heat and mass transfer and condensation interference in a laminar flow diffusion chamber Int. J. heat mass transfer, 2006, Vol. 49, pp. 1004-1014.

Fisenko S.P., Brin А.А.

Oscillatory nucleation in counter flows of vapor and droplets Intern. J. heat mass transfer, 2006, v.49, N 13/14, pp. 2044 – 2052.

Kane D.B., El-Shall M.S., Rusyniak M., Fisenko S.P.

Evaporative cooling of micron-sized droplets in a low pressure aerosol reactor Chemical Engineering Science, 2006, v. 61, N 18. pp. 6029-6034.

Okuyama K., Lenggoro I., Wuled Wang Wei-Ning, Fisenko S.P.

Influence of Size Effect and Foreign Gases on Formation of Nanoparticles Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer 33(1), р. 56-60 (2006) Levdansky V.V., Smolik J., Moravec P.
Free-Molecular Gas Flow in Channels (Pores) with Physico-Chemical Transformation on the Surface. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, V. 49(13-14), р. 2356-2365 (2006)

Levdansky V.V., Smolik J., Moravec P.

Influence of Inlet Section Geometry on Composite SiO2/ZrO2 Fine Particle Synthesis in Tube Flow Reactor. NOSA 2006 Aerosol Symposium NOSA 2006 Aerosol Symposium, , p. 255-258 Moravec P., Smolik J., Keskinen H., Makela J.M., Levdansky V.V.
Simulation of a cross-flow cooling tower performance Intern. J. heat mass transfer, 2007, Vol. 50, № 15-16, pp. 3216-3223.

Fisenko S.P., Brin А.А.

Simulation of nucleation experiments in laminar flow diffusion chamber Nucleation and atmospheric aerosols, eds.: C.D. O’Dowd and P.E. Wagner, Springer, 2007, Pp. 190-194.

Fisenko S.P., Brin А.А.

Vapor condensation on nanoparticles in the mixer of a particle size magnifier Intern. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 2007, v. 50, N 11/12, p. 2333-2338 Wei-Ning Wang, Manabu Shimada, Kikuo Okuyama., Fisenko S.P.
Thermodynamics and transfer processes in nanowhisker formation on a substrate Proceedings of Nanomeetings - 2007, World Scientific, Singapore p. 451-454 Borovik F.N., Kas’kova S.I., Fisenko S.P.,

Microstructure of Supersaturation Field and Nucleation Experiments

Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols 2007, Springer, Eds. O’Doud K. and Wagner P. p. 31-35 Fisenko S.P.,

Kinetics of Multicomponent Nucleation in Gas Phase

Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols 2007, Springer, Eds. O’Doud K. and Wagner P. p. 185-189 Fisenko S.P.,

Heterogeneous Condensation on Nanoparticle

Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols 2007, Springer, Eds. O’Doud K. and Wagner P. p. 181-185 Shimada M., Okyuama K., Fisenko S.P.,
Influence of Surface Phenomena on Free-Molecule Gas Flow in Fine Channels Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer 34(7), p. 796-800 (2007) Levdansky V.V., Smolik J., Moravec P.

Vapor Phase Synthesis of Zirconia Fine Particles from Zirconium Tetra-Tert-Butoxide

Aerosol Air Quality Res. (Int. J.). 7(4), 563-577, 2007

Moravec P., Smolik J., Keskinen H., Makela J., Levdansky V.V.

ZrO2/SiO2 Fine Particle Synthesis by MOCVD

Chem. Vapor Depos. 13 (9), p. 474-480. 2007

Moravec P., Smolik J., Keskinen H., Makela J.M., Levdansky V.V.
Effect of Surface Processes on Formation of Aerosol Particles. 19th International Symposium on Gas Kinetics, Proceedings 19th International Symposium on Gas Kinetics, Proceedings Levdansky V.V., Smolik J., Zdimal V., Moravec P.

Size Effects in the Growth of Aerosol Nanoparticles and Their Coalescence

Proceedings of the International Conference Nanomeeting-2007, p. 419-422, Minsk, Belarus, 22-25 May 2007, Word Scientific; New Jersey, 2007

Levdansky V.V., Smolik J., Zdimal V., Moravec P.

Nonstationary heating and phase transitions in live cell absorption of laser radiation.

Heat Transfer Research. 2007, Vol. 38, No. 8, pp. 695-708 Lapotko D.O., Shnip A.I., Martynenko O.G., Lukyanova E.Yu.
Water covering of nanoparticles in laminar flow diffusion chamber Proc. of 5 European Thermal Sciences Conference, 2008, Eindhoven, The Netherlands. ISBN 978-90-386-1274-4.

Fisenko S.P., Шабер К., Brin А.А.

Effect of surface diffusion on transfer processes in heterogeneous systems Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, V. 51 (9-10), p. 2471-2481 (2008)

Levdansky V.V., Smolik J., Moravec P.

Joint effect of particle charge and adsorbable foreign gases on condensation of vapor on fine aerosol particles

Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, V. 35, p. 1246-1248 (2008)

Levdansky V.V., Smolík J., Moravec P.

Specific features of mathematical  and experimental modeling of the combined  heat transfer  in the apparatuses of remote probing of the earth

VII Minsk International Seminar “Heat Pipes, Heat Pumps, Refrigerators and Energy Surces. Proceedings. Minsk, 8-11 Sept. 2008, p. 456-459

Zhdanok S.A., Belyakovskii V.I., Chebotarev A.V., Vasiliev L.L., Kondrashov V.V., Rabetsky M.I., Shnip A.I.

Evaporation of water droplets in a high temperature gas flow Cyseni 2009, May 28-29, 2009, Kaunas, Lithuania, ISSN 1822-7554. Brin А.А.

Low pressure evaporative cooling of micron-sized droplets of solutions and its novel applications

Intern. J. Heat and Mass Transfer, 2009, v. 52, N 15-16, p. 3842-3849 Hodyko Yu.A., Fisenko S.P.
Peculiarities of nanoparticles growth in low pressure spray pyrolysis

Physics, chemistry and Applications of nanostructures, 2009. World Scientific, Singapore, 2009 p. 446-448

Hodyko Yu.A., Fisenko S.P.

Radiation-induced mass transfer through membranes

Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, V. 36 (2), p. 125-128 (2009) Levdansky V.V., Smolík J., Moravec P.

Impurity trapping by aerosol particles. aerosol

Aerosol. Air Quality Res. (Int. J.), Vol. 9 (2), p. 257-265 (2009)

Levdansky V.V., Smolík J., Moravec P.

Influence of size effect, resonance radiation and surface processes on critical diameter of aerosol particles

Proceedings of 18th International Conference “Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols”, p. 830-833, Prague, Czech Republic, 10-14 August 2009

Levdansky V.V., Smolik J., Moravec P.

Size effect in chemical reactions in nanoparticles

International Conference Nanomeeting - 2009, Proceedings, p. 442-445, Minsk, Belarus, 26-29 May 2009

Levdansky V.V., Smolik J., Moravec P.

Size effect in phase transitions in aerosol systems with nanoscale particles (clusters)

Annual Conference of the Czech Aerosol Society. Sbornik conference, p. 72-73, Cejkovice, Czech Republic, 12-13 November 2009

Levdansky V.V., Smolik J., Moravec P.

Size effects in coalescence of nanoscale aerosol particles Annual Conference of the Czech Aerosol Society. Sbornik Conference, p. 73-74, Cejkovice, Czech Republic, 12-13 November 2009.

Levdansky V.V., Smolik J.,  Moravec P

Heterogeneous droplets growth in a diffusion chamber Cyseni 2010, May 27-28, 2010, Kaunas, Lithuania, ISSN 1822-7554, pp. VII-326-330.

Fisenko S.P., Brin А.А.

Bubble generation in micro-volumes of “nanofluids”

Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer.  Vol. 52, № 5-6, p. 1534-1539, 2009.

Vasiliev L.L., Hleb E.A., Lapotko D.A., Shnip A.I.

Heat transfer and growth of nano- and submicron particles of black carbon in nonequilibrium gas mixture. Experiment and simulation. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 2010, v. 53, issue 23/24,  p. 5465-5471 Baranyshyn Y.A., Penyazkov O.G., Fisenko S.P.
Size effects in physicochemical transformations in aerosol systems with nanoparticles Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, V. 37 (6), p. 593-595 (2010)

Levdansky V.V., Smolik J., Moravec P.

Influence of foreign gas on trapping of vapor molecules by nanoscale particles (clusters) Czech aerosol society, Sbornik conference, p. 49-50, Prague, Czech Republic, 18-19 November 2010

Levdansky V.V., Smolik J., Moravec P., Zdimal V.

Impurity concentration in aerosol particles growing by vapor condensation

Czech aerosol society, Sbornik conference, pp. 57-58, Prague, Czech Republic, 18-19 November 2010

Levdansky V.V., Smolik J., Moravec P., 
Zdimal V.

Numerical modeling of space vehicle external thermal loads

Book of abstracts 110-th Ukrainian Conference on Space Research, 2010, p. 72

Marach S.O., Shnip A.I.

Thermal efficiency of forced draft cooling tower with full cone nozzles CYSENI 2011, May 26-27, 2011, Kaunas, Lithuania, ISSN 1822-7554, pp. VI-266-270.

Petruchik A.I., Brin А.А.

Coalescence of carbon clusters in a catalytic nanodroplet and formation of carbon nanofibre Smart Nanocomposites, 2011, vol. 1, issue 2 Zhdanok S.A., Martynenko V.V.., Shabunya S.I., Fisenko S.P.
Surprising thermal effects during growth of carbon nanofibre via ”vapor-liquid-solid” route Physics, Chemistry and Application of Nanostructures, 2011, p. 81-83. Eds. V.E. Borisenko, C.H. Kam Shabunya S.I., Martynenko V.V., Zhdanok S.A., Fisenko S.P.

Heat transfer and growth of primary black carbon particles in gas mixture

In “Carbon black: production, properties and uses”. Nova Science Publishers Inc. EDS. Ian J. Sanders and Thomas L. Peeten. 2011. Chapter 4. ISBN: 978-1-61209-535-6 Baranyshyn Y.A., Penyazkov O.G., Fisenko S.P
Thermophoresis and Brownian Diffusion of Nanoparticles in a Nonisothermal Gas Flow In “Brownian Motion: Theory, Modelling and Applications “ EdS. Robert C. Earnshaw and Elizabeth M. Riley Nova Science Publishers, 2011. chapter 10. ISBN: 978-1-61209-537-0 Khodyko J. A., Fisenko S.P.

Nanoparticle Synthesis by Chemical Vapor Deposition from Nickel Acetylacetonate

Mater. Sci. Appl. Т. 2, p. 258-264 (2011)

Moravec P., Smolik J., Keskinen H., Mäkelä J.M., Bakardjieva S., Levdansky V.V.

Influence of size effects on growth rate of Si nanowhiskers

Int. Conf. on Physics, Chemistry and Application of Nanostructures "Nanomeeting 2011", Minsk, Belarus, 24-27 May 2011, p. 162-164

Levdansky V.V., Smolík J., Zdimal V.

Size effects in phase transitions in aerosol systems with nanoscale particles and inside nanoparticles

In: “Nucleation Theory and Applications”. (Schmelzer, J.W.P. - Röpke, G. - Priezzhev,V.B., Ed.), p. 251-257, JINR, Dubna, 2011

Levdansky V.V., Smolik J., Zdimal V., Moravec P.

Steam thermolysis of technical rubber material

Book «Rubber ? Types, Properties» Ed. Gabriel Popa Nova Publishers. USA, 2011

Zhuranski H.A., Zhdanok V.A., Babenko V.A., Pavlukevich N.V.

Influence of cooling tower on thermal parameters of circulating water systems CYSENI 2012, May 24-25, 2012, Kaunas, Lithuania, ISSN 1822-7554, pp. VI-435-439.

Petruchik A.I., Brin А.А.